Friday, December 27, 2019

Culture Shock By Catherine Lombard, Jonathan Rempel, And...

Just moved to another country? Are their customs, traditions, and values unfamiliar to you? Constantly feeling tired, depressed, and lonely? Experiencing crucial migraines or always feeling sleepy? Well, you may be suffering from culture shock. When speaking of â€Å"culture shock† one immediately defines it as moving or visiting a foreign country of sorts that is unfamiliar to the individual. However, although that may be true there are other forms of culture shock such as changing jobs, moving to a new home, or even purchasing new items for oneself. I have visited India multiple times at different points in my life to see family and friends, and for each time I have visited I noticed a different effect culture shock takes a toll on me physically and psychologically. To help me unveil methods to manage and prevent occurrences of culture shock I will be using an assortment of articles. Specifically, I will be citing scholarly articles written by Catherine Lombard, Jonathan Rem pel, and Junzi Xia. Along with the use of our textbook Understanding Intercultural Communications written by Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva Chung. A way to interpret culture shock is to envision it similarly to a disease. It has different stages and effects on every individual, it is hard to isolate, and many don’t feel the pain or discomfort until some time has passed. Everyone experiences culture shock in some shape or form, some with heavier impacts than others; however, there are various exercises for

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Poverty Of The Hunger Rebellion - 1671 Words

The Hunger Rebellion â€Å"The United States ranks near the bottom of the pack of wealthy nations on a measure of child poverty, according to a new report from UNICEF. Nearly one third of U.S. children live in households with an income below 60 percent of the national median income in 2008 - about $31,000 annually. In the richest nation in the world, one in three kids live in poverty.† according to Cristopher Ingraham, a political writer who previously worked at the Brookings Institution and the Pew Research Center. Child poverty is becoming progressively a serious issue in the society, principally when correlating it with being one of—If not—the wealthiest countries in the world. The effect of it is not minimal nor limited to the children in poverty, it is implementing the future education, health, and faith of the country. So by deciphering the problem, the lives saving would be beyond limits. The non-profit organization Children’s Hunger Fund is acting to reduce and hope to eventually eliminate child poverty by offering the combination of physical and spiritual support believing they are essential base to explore knowledge, and without them our bodies and souls are ill, confused and lost. Children’s Hunger Fund (CHF) is a religious based organization that aims to deliver hope by feeding poor hungry children in America and around the world and by equipping local churches for gospel-centered mercy ministry. It was established in 1991 by president and founder Dave PhilipsShow MoreRelatedSouth Afric A Global Issue1490 Words   |  6 Pagesthe way to number four on the â€Å"Top Ten Poorest Countries in the World† list (Poorest). World hunger is a global issue, but is most prominent in parts of Africa and Asia; Liberia being one of the many places (Person). A number of things can cause hunger, but some of the most common reasons are the lack of money, the lack of resources, and the incapability of trading goods. Though the causes of world hunger in Liberia are economical, the effects are mostly social. All countries have one goal: theirRead MoreThe Hunger Games The Capitol851 Words   |  4 PagesIn The Hunger Games the Capitol is a place of vast wealth while the districts especially the districts of eleven and twelve are living in poverty. This wealth that the Capitol has it a type of social control because it keeps the districts from being able to gain the ability to fight back against the Capitol due to their poverty status. The poverty in the districts is so bad that Katniss Everdeen from District Twelve requires that she break a law of the Capitol’s, which is not leaving the fenced areaRead MoreEssay about The Hanger Games by Suzanne Collins983 Words   |  4 Pagesto badly effect or for a bad purpose . Suzanne Collins exemplifies power and abuse in various ways throughout her novel, ‘The Hunger Games’. This intense novel is set in a time period after a rebellion in North America left the country destroyed, divided into 12 districts and being controlled by the Capitol. Katniss Everdeen is the main protagonist and is from the poverty stricken district 12, completely opposite from the Capitol which is the place that is rich in wealth and power over the 12 districtsRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1230 Words   |  5 PagesThe Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins in a classic example of a dystopian Text as it is a futuristic, imagined universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through a bureaucratic, technological, or totalitarian control. Throughout the book their are many forms of powers from wealth, gender, the Capitol, and Peeta Mellark. The totalitarian government run by the capitol is clearly one of the most obvious and dangerous form of power in The HungerRead MoreThe Girl On Fire By Suzanne Collins1497 Words   |  6 Pageswhere a myth that gender inequality is a misconceived idea of the past, still continues. Recently, this newfound sense of girl activism has been distinguished throughout pop culture including movies, songs, and books. Suzanne Collins, author of The Hunger Games trilogy, created a fictional, yet extraordinary girl activist named Katniss Everdeen, who since the first novel was published in 2008, has inspired millions of young girls around the world to embrace their inner â€Å"mockingjay† and justify revolutionRead MoreThe Taiping Rebellion And The French Revolution1685 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout history, rebellions and revolutions shaped societies and created better conditions for the people of those societies. The Taiping Rebellion and the French Revolution successfully shaped the ir societies by means of political and social reforms. They were both influenced to later achieve their unique successes because of a multitude of pushing factors, such as the existing social and political conditions of China and France. Natural disasters, breaking away from tradition, and China sRead MoreSociology of Hunger Games1719 Words   |  7 PagesSociology of â€Å"Hunger Games† By. Tom ************ Soc 101 11/17/13 Introduction The nation of Panem has risen out of the ravaged ruins of what was once known as North America. 74 years ago, the poverty-stricken districts of Panem rebelled against the wealthy, controlling the Capitol. After its crushing victory, the Capitol devised the Hunger Games as an annual reminder to the twelve districts of its authority, and as continuing punishment for the rebellion. Every yearRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1013 Words   |  5 PagesIn the â€Å"Hunger Games†, citizens in thirteen districts are subordinates to the citizens of the capital. These subordinates were forced to work for the capital and were given no mercy — there were public beatings for crimes and even their kids were killed on a comical television show for the capital citizens. These ideas, which Suzanne Collins used in her book, can be traced to our own past. Similar to the forced labor and abuse the Capital imposed on the district members in the â€Å"Hunger Games†,Read MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1712 Words   |  7 PagesDang Truong Mrs. Carter World Literature November 12, 2016 The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins: Survival The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins is a novel about a teenage girl, Katniss, struggling to survive in the life oppressed by the government. Living with the injustice of the Capitol, Katniss soon develops her own hatred toward the Capitol; by using what she have and striving for the best against it, Katniss is able to hold the odds in her favor. Katniss volunteering in Prim s place in the arenaRead MoreThe Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins Essay631 Words   |  3 PagesThe Hunger Games novel written by Suzanne Collins reflects significant issues in the reality world nowadays which relate to the humanity, the poverty, the violence,†¦ It describes the issues through the characters and what happens in the story, and the most significant issue occurs throughout the novel is the gap between rich and poor people. In the beginning of the novel, Suzanne Collins describes clearly the scene of the poverty, the terrible fear of the 12-district’s villagers, in contrast to the

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Nature Vs Nurture Environment Example For Students

Nature Vs Nurture : Environment Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. – John B. Watson. Generally, using the terms nature and nurture as a suitable catch-phrase for the roles of genetics and environment in human and animal development dates way back to 13th century France. Some scientists feel that people act according to genetic inclinations or animal instincts. This is the nature theory of human behavior. Other scientists suggest that people reason and act in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is the nurture theory of human behavior. The increasing understanding of the human genome has made it clear that both parties of the controversy have merit. Nature gives us inborn abilities and traits and it takes these genetic propensities and molds them as we learn and develop . The nature vs environment† argument is still on, as scientists debate over how much of who we are is shaped by genes and how much by the environment. Nature The human genome has been proven to determine the different traits that we have, majorly on the physical characters like eye color, hair color, ear size, height, and other traits. However, we are not certain about whether our abstruse characteristics like intelligence, personality, preferences, sexual orientation are gene-coded in our DNA, too. Also, the behavioral genes are somehow proven to exist when you observe fraternal twins. When fraternal twins grow up in different environments, they may respond and behave to certain situations as though they were reared together. Nurture The nurture theory insists thatalthough genes and heredity may influence abstract traits, environmental factors make the major contribution to human and animal behavior. This includes the use of conditioning in order to induce a new behavior to a child, or alter an unlikely behavior being shown by the child. John Watson, one of the leaders of the Nurture campaign, once said that he can be able to train a baby randomly chosen in a group of 12 infants, to become any type of specialist he wants. He stated that he could train him to be such regardless of the child s potentialities, talents and race. Even though fraternal twins raised apart often have remarkable similarities, still the differences in environmental influences may lead to several variations in the way they behave. We are still left in our dilemma: Are we born this way, or do we act in accordance to our life experiences? The nature vs environment controversy goes on and on, and although it is a fact that we have traits that are predetermined by our genes, we can still choose who we want to be as we travel through our lifetime. THE CONTROVERSY Over time, psychologists have tried to observe the relative amount contributed by genetics or environmental factors to diverse human behaviors. The frequently asked question is whether human and animal behavior is determined by the person’s genetic inheritance or is the behavior determined by upbringing . The concern in this question resulted to what is called the Nature Nurture Controversy. Many researchers took extreme positions in this issue, while some researchers exercised on exclusive roles or genetic hereditary, others took the opposite extreme by denying biological contribution and emphasizing learning and experience . John Locke . He posits that new born children are like ‘’tabular rasa’’ or ‘’blank slate’’ which is an example of a white board or black board, and anything written on this board can only be attributed to learning and experience. According to this view, nature contributes nothing to human behavior apart from providing a life body. Although this position was later disproved, the idea had enormous effect in philosophy, politics, and psychology. The opposite side of this debate holds that humans are born with complete genetic instructions that determine their response to every situation. One of the strongest argument in support of this position was Wilhelm Von Heibnits. His main argument on position is that we are the way we are born, which he based it on the belief that genes and hereditary must contribute to human behavior, this position is invalid because there is no particular or one gene responsible for behavior. Although genes act at a molecular level in the development and maintenance of the structures that has consequences of behavior, the inheritance of behavioral traits follow a multi-factorial pattern which involves actions of many genes and interactions between heredity and environment. In modern times, researchers have demonstrated that both hereditary and environment play a role in behavior through their interactions. Human behavior is therefore a result of the complex interactions between hereditary and environmental factors. Hinduism And Forgiveness EssayImprinting provides an opportunity to learn key variable components in an environment while retaining largely innate behavioral patterns. More flexibility may be shown in the development of food preferences, as food availability can vary from habitat to habitat, or from season to season. Insects may imprint on the chemistry of the leaves they eat as caterpillars; when they become adults they then choose to lay their eggs on plants with a chemistry that matches the leaves they ate when young. This insures a suitable diet for the next generation. Young birds and mammals often learn food preferences based on food shared by adults, on observations of feeding preferences of adults, and on sampling possible food items. Another form of learning involves aversions, which can develop at any point in any animal’s life. Birds and mammals develop lifelong aversions to specific foods that contain poisons that cause sickness (such as monarch butterflies). In contrast, some preferences and aversions appear to be innate, or at least to be driven by physiological needs for certain nutrients, such as salt. Genes and Environment in Human Behavior: Sociocultural Influences. Quite often humans worry that their behavior might be completely controlled by their genetic make up, meaning that one might be involuntarily compelled into poor parenting, violent behavior, or drug addiction. Most human cultures also has strong beliefs in self-determination and free will, as well as the ability of humans to be able to differenciate the right from the wrong and to make choices about the appropriateness of their actions. Heated arguments among biologists, philosophers, and ethicists over the relative roles of genes and behavior in human behavior have brought no simple resolution. The and will continue to fuel controversy, even as more is discovered about the genetic and evolutionary bases of behavior. TWIN STUDIES AND ADOPTION STUDIES One way to determine the contribution of genes and environment to a trait is to study twins. In one kind of study, identical twins reared apart are compared to randomly selected pairs of people. The twins share identical genes, but different family environments. In another kind of twin study, identical twins reared together (who share family environment and genes) are compared to fraternal twins reared together (who also share family environment but only share half their genes). Another condition that permits the disassociation of genes and environment is adoption. In one kind of adoption study, biological siblings reared together (who share the same family environment and half their genes) are compared to adoptive siblings (who share their family environment but none of their genes). The nature side of this debate emphasizes how much of an organism reflected are s biological factors. But, on the other hand genes are activated at appropriate times during development an the basis for protein production. Proteins include a wide range of molecules, such as hormones and enzymes that act in the body as signaling and structural molecules to direct development. CONCLUSION Although they may seem alternate and antagonistic in constitution, nature and nuture,work hand in hand in defining human and animal behavior. Many aspects of human behavior, which can not be explained by genetic and behavioural analysis of parents can be explained by evaluating the influences of the individuals social and physical environment. REFFERENCES The Dependent Gene, The fallacy of â€Å"Nature vs Nurture†-Sir Francis Golton-Google Baeken. Retrieved 2013 -12-23. Dusheck, Jennie:, The Interpretation Of Genes.Natural History, October 2002. Ridley,M: Nature via Nuture. Genes, Experience and What makes us Human . Edge, org.: Nature Versus Nurture , accesed,0125 2014. Planin,R, Fulker ,: DW ,Corely ,R , De Fries J.C (1997) .Nature Nurture and Cognitive Develpement from 1 to 16 years .A Parent Offspring Adoption Study Psychological Science Moore, D.S.(2003)The dependent gene. The Fallacy of nature vs. nurture .New York, NY :

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Jurassic Park Essays (514 words) - Jurassic Park,

Jurassic Park Jurassic Park takes place on an Island off the Coast of Costa Rica which is owned by a multimillionaire, John Hammond. On this island he has set up a genetical engineering facility which permits him and his scientist to create dinosaur from blood extracted from prehistoric mosquitos, that have been preserved in amber. Before he opens this living attraction to the public he needs specialist to approve the park. He brings them to the island and begins to show them what he has accomplished. While they are touring the island one of the computer programmers, Dennis Nedry, is secretly planning to steal dinosaur embryos from the park and sell them to a company that is trying to compete with Hammond. The only way Nedry can obtain these embryos is to immobilize the park by interrupting the parks normal function, so that he could sneak in and steal the embryos. This all takes place while the visitors are out in the park touring, and in the mist of a terrible storm. After Nedry has executed a virus in order to steal the embryos the storm hits, and the park power goes out. As the power goes out the visitors to the island are stuck in the middle of nowhere, with an escaped T-Rex. Everyone flees and is scattered through the park. The animals begin attacking the control building, while they are search for food. Since all the power is out there is no way to stop them, or containing them. In the hysteria a scientist , Wu, discovers that the dinosaurs have been mating, which they thought wasn't possible, because they were only cloning females, but the dinosaurs have adapted and have found a way to reproduce. They think they got the power back on so they try to put all the animals back in their holding areas. Little did they know that the whole time the park was running on auxiliary power, and once this power ran out they could not restore the main power. When all the power finally ran out the animals began attacking at full force now. Their only alternative to get the power restored is to have someone manually turn on another auxiliary power generator so they could get the main power running again. The visitors and the staff of Jurassic Park escape but with two casualties. They escape by having a helicopter pick them up. After the pick up the Costa Rican government bomb the island in order to destroy it. According to the book genetic cloning can be accomplished by obtaining just a small amount of blood. May this type of cloning be possible in real life only time will tell, and the advancements in technology it should be a thing of the future. The fact that this type of thing might be done, is slim only because of dangers of disturbing the natural flow of things. In the book the greatest marvel they discovered turned around and caused them great disaster. If man kind does try to bring back the dinosaurs will the same happen? Bibliography the book

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Twentieth and Twenty

Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Music Essay There was also an increased presence of vocals being used in the creation of music during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This had much to do with the change in culture as well as the advancements in technology and increased the variety of venues musical performers could play in. The new electronic instruments also developed during this time were a strong contributor in the large increase of different types of music created. A large number of new musical genres were created during the 20th and 21st centuries. These include but are not limited to Jazz, Rock and Roll, Country, Blues, Folk, Pop, RB, Rap, and Electronic. We will write a custom essay on Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Music specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Many of these new genres are derivatives of earlier forms of music and many have sub genres underneath the main ones. This huge influx of new musical genres was due in part to the large numbers of immigrants entering the United States and the melding of different cultures into one another. The melding of cultures helped bring new ideas and some new musical inventions such as the electric guitar, bass guitar, drum kit, synthesizer, sampler, and keyboards to create fresh new melodies. It was through these freedoms and experimentation that musicians were able to express ideas that would change the way the world would view and hear music forever. Music has evolved in the 20th and 21st centuries through contributions from men, women and even children to some extent. Although some music remained for men only such as the Jewish folk music known as Sleeker, many of the new genres of music during this time period involved woman performers. (Sleeker) Women had been writing music before the 20th century for decades, but it wasnt until the 20th century that they finally begin to gain prominence and gain some recognition for their accomplishments. Osborne) However, women still faced challenges in many aspects of music during the 20th and 21st centuries as they increased their roles in mom of the newer musical genres, they like their women business world counterparts encountered more resistance and bias when trying to transcend more traditional genres such as classical music. (Osborne) In a recent study by Alimenting and Hickman, estimated the percentages of women represented in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Music By azalea re presentation of women at 36%, followed by the U. K. T 30%, and 16% for East and West Germany. (Osborne) While in decades past the typical orchestra consisted typically of white males of European descent, today women are increasing their numbers with nearly half of all students currently at conservatories of music being women. (Osborne) Whether it is men or women controlling the orchestra, one thing is for certain: music will continuously evolve and change. An increase in the use of vocal music lead to a dramatic increase in the different types of venues musicians performed at during the 20th and 21st centuries. Typically during the early 20th century, vocal music was only performed in half shell open stages like those found in theater and opera houses, but today there is a much larger variety of venues for musicians to play in from those that hold thousands to mom that only hold a few dozen. Today it mainly depends on the popularity of the music and is ultimately up to the musician as to whether they prefer a large open stage with thousands of people or a small club type atmosphere where the people are closer and the musician feels more intimate and involved with the audience. While the centuries before many venues were used for the primary purpose of the operas or symphony orchestras, most of todays venues serve as multi-purpose event complexes. With the explosion of sports along with music during the 20th and 21st centuries, an arena or stadium may hold a basketball game one night and have a withy and blues concert on the next night. Many of these arenas and stadiums are setup for musical venues with lighting and acoustics already in place, the only thing that usually has to be done is to build up a stage and sell the tickets. .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .postImageUrl , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:hover , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:visited , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:active { border:0!important; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:active , .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836 .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc5133b6277c326c47b22e7e0af4c9836:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Music Through The Decades EssayThe ability for these venues to hold thousands of people and the mass marketing available to musical performs today help create a cash flow that was never even dreamed of in the centuries of music before. Regardless of how the music is presented or how many spectators show up, the people always come to enjoy the creativity and skillfulness of those musicians who perform. Along with math, music is one of the universal languages of the world. Though many people interpret music in different ways, we all listen to enjoy it, dance to it or just use the melody and rhythm to help us relax. As our world evolves and becomes more complex it would be safe to think that music will always be there in some form or another. Music is an art form and another unique way people express themselves. During the 20th and 21st centuries we have seen that uniqueness grow by leaps and bounds with the number of new genres that emerged. We can only imagine what the future holds in the world of music!

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Breakfast Cereals in Uk 07 Essays

Breakfast Cereals in Uk 07 Essays Breakfast Cereals in Uk 07 Essay Breakfast Cereals in Uk 07 Essay Breakfast Cereals in United Kingdom 2007 Introduction: Aim: The aim of this report is to discuss whether The change of macroeconomic situation is an opportunity or threat for United Kingdom’s breakfast cereal industry. Compare the external microenvironment that affects firms in which breakfast cereal industry operates with the help of PEST analysis. To evaluate the operational strategy that affects the level of competitive environment in an industry using Porter’s five force model. Why I chose this industry: Cereals are a great start to the day. â€Å"Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dine like a pauper. By Adelle Davis Like most proverb says, this one hold more than a gram of truth. Breakfast cereals are certainly the most important meal of the day. It is a time when we ‘Break the Fast’ of the night, which can be anything up to 10 or 12 hours. The nutritional benefits of breakfast, facts suggest that this important meal provide a number of ot her benefits to give us the best start of the day. Breakfast cereals industry is diverse and has come up with new exciting flavors. There is an increase in the market with consumption of oats, muesli and high- fiber cereals, since 2002. Without doubt, health is the key factor that drives the expansion of the industry and consumption. This is one of the most growing industries despite the market is saturated and that cereals have been facing increasingly fierce pressure from alternatives, such as cereals bars and croissants. The breakfast cereal in United Kingdom has also grown in value terms increasing by an estimated 9. 5% between 2002 and 2006, to ? 1. 23bn at retail selling prices (RSP) reflecting the growth in volume and the shift towards premium – price products. There has been offset to some extent by aggressive price discounting by the major multiples. Some cereals have also come under fierce attack for their allegedly high sugar, fats and salt contents. In addition, they have placed more emphasis on their brands health credentials, and new product development (NPD) has followed this trend. The market appears to be very strong, and has healthy image, are convenient to use and are already a well-established item in most peoples kitchens. However, they should continue to be beneficiaries of the two major trends influencing food and drinks markets, not just in the UK but around the world - namely demand for healthy and convenient products. Boundaries: As the topic of this easy is analyzing the breakfast cereals industry in United Kingdom, emphasis is on the source related to United Kingdom’s environment during the process of collecting materials. The data statistics reports given was collected were one or two years before. There was no much reports available for reference. Moreover, the materials collected in this research are secondary data. To analyse the market efficiently primary report has to be used. Industry Sector: Sector introduction: The cereal market has managed a strong level of growth in the market volume and values in United Kingdom since 2000. The breakfast cereals market has grown over ? 1,090 million (2002) to ? 1,280 million (2007) with over 95% of house stock breakfast cereals [23,24]. There is a strong growth of 17% in the size of household penetration over last five years [23]. The volume of consumption of the cereals has been 432,000 tonnes in 2007 with a growth of just 7% over this period [23,1,2,3,4]. Over 87% of the household consume breakfast cereals twice every weekday. There are reports, which say that United Kingdom is the second highest global consumer of Breakfast cereals, [24]. This has occurred due to strong permiumisation in the market, as there is higher value of products launched. There is always demand for products that delivery high taste and quality with health as superior, [23]. The revolution towards healthy eating has been used by the breakfast cereal manufacturers, who make use of their intrinsic healthiness of their products and there by widening the scientific evidence to support the eating of breakfast cereal. The manufacturers are stressing about their health credentials on packs (like fiber, calories, vitamins, minerals, wholegrain and super food), so that the message reaches the increasing target audiences. However, the hot cereals accounts for only 12% of the market had seen strong until 2006 driven by the growing consumers’ interest in oats, [23]. Therefore, the hot cereals have launches a number of oats based cold cereals, which include oatibix, oatsmore, and cheerios oats, which now have taken over the hot cereals market. There is an ongoing development in the eating on the go and snacking market has played an important part in the growth of the industries. PEST Analysis: The PEST analysis is an analysis of the external microenvironment that affects all firms in which a business operates. The PEST is an ellipsis for the Political, Economic, Social, and technological factors of the external macro environment. These factors usually are beyond the control of firm’s but sometime become threat for the firm itself. This analysis is important when developing a product, business or strategy planning. POLITICAL: This arena will have huge influence depending on the regulation of business and the spending power of consumers and other business. Many political factors affect this industry as it deals with the foods. There are many basic regulations for the food industries but here there are only few important laws and regulations that have been discussed. ACFM Statement on salt: Members of the Association of Cereal Food Manufacturers* (ACFM) have announced a significant 38% reduction in salt which contain an average of 0. 36g of sodium per 100g, which equates to less than 5% of the average adult daily intake. Now, the Breakfast Cereals manufactures are leading the way in product reformulation such as salt reduction and clear nutritional labeling through Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs). [24 ] ACFM Statement on sugars: The European Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 stated that product which says as Low Sugar must contain 5g/100g total sugars. Green colour coding for breakfast cereals should be criterion. The regulation also requires the statement â€Å"contains naturally occurring sugars† if the product have natural sugar and if the manufacturer claims no added sugar. These information should be provided in the core of the signpost with the colour coding, which was recommended for each. However, it suggested that cereals that have no added sugar, like fruit muesli, could be excluded from the recommended signposting categories. [24, 26]. The colour code for sugars, Green if total sugars are less than or equal to 5g/100g. The colour Amber if total sugar exceeds 5g/100g and added sugars are less than 12. 5g/100g. The Red colour denoted if added sugars are more than 12. 5g/100g. Fortification Breakfast Cereals: New regulation on food fortification 1925/2006/EC in 2007 for foods, which should be voluntary fortification (breakfast cereals) not for foods that are subjected to mandatory fortification. The recommendation is based on the nutritionists, who says that the breakfast should be provide 20 -25% of daily requirements. The fortified breakfast cereals are more likely to meet their daily requirements of essential vitamins and minerals. For instance, there should be around 20% of total iron, 15% of folic acid, 14% of vitamin B1, 13% of vitamin B6, 15% of riboflavin and 10% of niacin. 24, 27]. ACFM position on Food Labelling – Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA): The Association of Cereal Food Manufacturers have supports the government objectives along with the Food Standards Agency, to provide clear information on the nutritional labeling by implementing the use of Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA’s). Thereby giving the consumer clear informationâ€℠¢s on the nutritional contents in their foods so that they know what they eat, [24,12]. ECONOMIC: The success of breakfast cereals is due to penetration and frequency of usage is high, with more than half of consumer eat cereals at least once each day, [9,10]. As they are well-established market with big brands and huge marketing budgets. The market is a matured due to the popularity that keeps the cereals market sales persistently high. The breakfast cereals are facing increasing pressure from alternatives, such as cereal bars and croissants, [16]. The increasing usage has been the focus of growing market (Kellogg’s challenge, weetabix- more than cereal consumption). They have placed more emphasis on their brands health credentials, and new product development (NPD) has followed this trend. The market is very stable in terms of brand shares and suppliers. There is growing demand for the cereals globally, have increased the price of breakfast cereals and farmers are turning the land over to the production of bio-fuel. The increase in raw materials prices is due to erratic change in the weather and crop damage is becoming common with poor harvest. This have pushed the retail selling price (RSP) of cereals in United States, there by rising the price of breakfast cereals at the point of sales in United Kingdom, [23,17]. The manufacturer has to focus on the production values (such as provenance, organic and even fair trade) to shape the future direction of the market. The survey done by BMRB (British Market Research Bureau) International Ltds Target Group Index (TGI) that cold breakfast cereals remain a family favorites. In 2006, around 86% of adults had eaten cold breakfast cereals over the past 12 months, which is an extremely high rate of household penetration. Hot cereals recorded a much lower level of household penetration than cold cereals, but, at 49. 4% of adults, but the penetration rate was still impressive, [28]. Socio cultural: The breakfast cereals was initial targeted for school going children, aged 11 – 18 years, as they tend to skip their breakfast. This breakfast cereal was successful as they can meet their 20% daily nutrition requirement from their breakfast. Then when the market became saturated, they targeted the ageing population as they have time to have breakfast. They normally do not skip their meal to keep their weight down. These group are health concerning, and these consumer are more keen towards wholesome, unadulterated food with no artificial ingredients rather than light or diet version. As this market is moving towards saturation, the manufacturers are now focusing on the whole family, to get more members of the family eating together. The premiumisation to continue with future consumer’s trends, where health drives both sales and new product development, as there is a growth in sale in the saturated market by increasing spends per head, [5,6,7,11]. The concern on health has put pressure on the manufacturers to reduce salts, sugar, fats and other additives from the cereals. There are several high profile TV programs like Dispatches: The Truth about Your Food and the Consumer Group which? ave identified that breakfast cereals was high in sugar and fats. However, the breakfast cereals manufacturers have acted proactively than other food industries to reformulating their existing product brand and lowering their hidden sugars, fats and salts contents. The manufacturers are now launching new naturally healthier products with sophisticated recipes and health claim s such as high fibers, whole grains, adding dries fruits, supper foods (Jordan’s and Dorset’s Cereals), pre- and probiotic functional ingredients, and organic foods. Many ethical issues concern with the breakfast cereals have arisen concerns over the products. These breakfast fast cereals contain high level of sugars, salts and fats than the recommended level. About three-quarters of cereals had high level of sugar, a fifth had high level of salt and more than 7% of cereals had high level of saturated fat. The breakfast cereals that target the children contain 88% of sugar coated, 13% of salt and 10% of fats. Now the manufacturer is reformulating their product due to increase media criticism by reducing their sugar and salt contains. FSA nutrient profiling and Ofcom Advertising Ban: The FSA launched a nutrient profiling model in April 2007, which was designed to tighten the rules on television advertising to children of foods high in fats, saturated fats, salt and sugar. this Ban on the advertising provoked uproar in the food industry as it was established as this would affect around 80% of cereals, so this banned was softened with some parameters and changing the guidelines for sugars, treating natural sugars and processed sugars. Thus, they changed their target to focus overall family, [23]. Increasing frequency of usage: There is an increase frequency of usage of cold breakfast cereals, which is at 87%, but there are still 13% consumers, who do not prefer having breakfast cereals, [23]. There is still an opportunity to convert the non-user into market and existing consumer to premium options, sourcing provenance-assured, organic and fair trade ingredients, and making favorites healthier will encourage the consumer to trade up. However, communicating these information and benefits to the target consumer will be vital. The other way of improving the frequency of usage will be to increase the occasion through handy/expediency solutions,[9,10]. The overall strategy of the manufacturers is increase the frequency of usage and there by increasing the amount spend on cereals eventually increasing their market value. Attitude and behaviour: There is a strong growth experienced by the hot cereal sector with a growth of 30% at the current price during last forecast period. It is also predicted that there would be a high volume growth in hot cereal sector by 10% when compared to Ready to eat (RTE) cereals, which would be only 2%. Currently there is an increase in the consumption of hot cereal sector, and with 50%, penetration there is still a good potentional for the future growth, [23]. The hot cereals experience both dip in the volume and value of sales in 2007, this is due to strong competition with oats cereals in the Ready to eat sector and the supermarkets bringing out there new cereals with low Retail selling price (RSP). However, in the market â€Å"well know brand† is top factor looked, when shopping for cereals is concerned which is unlikely to be effected. There is a slower growth within the RTE sectors, with 19% steady growth predicted at the current price for last forecast period, [23,5]. Technological Factors: There is tough competition within the industry, so the manufactures need to formulate new products to attract their target consumer and to increase there market share before they decline. The breakfast cereals industry have tried to come out with artificial sweeteners like isomalt. The isomalt, which is an artificial sweetener that would replace sugars in a 1:1 ratio in breakfast cereals. The isomalt is unique in its nutritional and hysiological benefits that make it ideal for use in sugar free, tooth friendly, low-calories and low glycemic products. The isomalt is the only sugar replaces made from the sugar beet that taste as naturally sweet as sugar, [29,30]. Evaluation of Competitive Nature of the Breakfast Cereal Industry: In the above there was an overview on the breakfast cereal industry, now in this there are three majo r competitor that are going to be compared. Even though the market is highly consolidated, with Kellogg, Weetabix and Cereal Partners which markets the Nestle brand in the UK. While, the Weetabix remains the top-selling ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal, followed by Kelloggs Corn Flakes, Crunchy Nut Corn Flakes and Special K, with Nestle’s Shreddies taking fifth spots. There is an introduction about the major competitors: Weetabix: The weetabix food company established since 1932, they also create delicious breakfast cereals using finest ingredients. Since then they have produce many popular cereal brands, which include weetabix, weetaflakes, weetabix minis, weetos, Alpen and Ready Brek, as well as being a major supplier of generic cereals under supermarket own labels, [20]. They are officially the UK’S favorite breakfast, who accounts about 8% of the country’s total cereal sales with annual sales worth over ? 89 million. They also export over 80 countries worldwide, from Middle East and South America to Europe and South East Asia. They also sponsor for Weetabix Women’s British Open Golf Tournament in 2007, [23, 20, 33]. Kellogg’s: William Keith Kellogg established the company in 1906. in 1950s, Kellogg’s introduced anew range of products to cater for differing taste of family, but without compromising its principle of health, balance and nutrition. Reformulating is a key part of Kellogg’s health strategy. They have set up new system to ensure that their products are healthy, which is called Kellogg’s Global Nutrient Criteria. The product states that no cereals will have more than 200 calories, 2 grams of saturated fat, 230g of sodium and 12 grams of sugar per serving. They are also eliminating all tran’s fats. They claim that reformulations should be noticeable and will take place across their range in2007 and 2008. They have also introduced global limits on their use of licensed characters on packs, in advertising and in food forms, in June 2007. They changed coco pops advertising to focus more on the product and removed the frosties websites, with users now redirected to a non-branded educational websites called Heaadstarters, [23,31]. Cereal Partners markets the Nestle brand: Cereal partners UK are part of cereal partners worldwide, a joint venture between nestle and general mills. They sell a number of popular cereals brands under nestle brand, which includes shredded wheat, shreddies, cheerios and fitnesse. All their products are made from whole grains and easy to identify, wholegrain green band on all their packing. They introduced a new range called Oats More in April, which was used to supported by the â€Å"studies show you’ll like it† advertising campaign, [23,32]. Porters 5 Forces Analysis: The porters five forcer helps to analysis the force, which affects the level of competitive environment in an industry. This is a simple tool but powerful to understand where the power lies in business situation. This tool tends to focus on the single, stand alone, business or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) rather than a single product or range of products. The analysis looks at five competitive forces jointly the intensity of the industries competition and profitability, they are the threat of entry, the power of buyers, the power of suppliers, the threat of substitutes and competitive rivalry, which reflects the fact that competition in an industry goes beyond the established players. Competitive Rivalry: The competitive rivalry will be those in which entry is likely substitute threaten and buyers or suppliers exercise control over the organizations. The competitive rivalry has increased as the supermarket has also introduced their branded breakfast cereals along with the top brand like Kellogg’s, weetabix and cereal partners (Nestle). Even then, the consumer prefers getting top branded cereals, where they are more health concisions. Understanding their consumer’s needs, Kellogg’s reformulates their products to reduce the salt, sugar and fats, there by making them healthier for consumption, [22]. They also invent new product developments under same brand name, thereby increasing their product range for the consumers needs. Weetabix on other hand have wide range of cold oats based cereals and Cereal partner’s (Nestle) have wide range of cereals, which would be sufficient to serve a huge markets,[21,19]. Buying Power: Buying power is wide-ranged. The cost of switching from one breakfast cereal to another is very low, as it depend on the consumer whether they are satisfied with the breakfast cereals that they consume. Kellogg’s, weetabix and cereal partner (nestle) have control over their buyers as they cater to different needs of the consumers and have direct contacts with their buyers,[15]. However, it is easy for the buyers to drive down the price of the breakfast cereals by just moving from brand to another to satisfy their health needs. Power of Supplier: The power of suppliers was dependent on the suppliers. The suppliers are the farmers in this case; there is a huge rise in the price of the cereals that is grown. Due to erratic weather change, damage crops and lands turning into bio fuel production area. These factors have affected the cost of the breakfast cereals, which come into market to consumption. Kellogg’s, weetabix and cereal partners (Nestle) have no control over their suppliers, as they dictate the price range of the cereals that is cultivated. Many small suppliers that are involved, thus there would be no huge control over the manufacturers. The government plays an important role in the raw materials selected to make breakfast cereals as they consumed more by the target consumers. Threat of substitutes: This is affected by the ability of the consumers to find different substitute for the particular product. The threat of substitute is quite high in the reakfast cereal industries as they have reached the matured stage of the market but there is always demand for the products. The cereal bars and croissants industries would replace the breakfast cereals in future, as they have started to capture the consumers’ attentions, [16]. Thus, Kellogg’s and Cereal Partner (Nestle) have introduced cereal bars as their product line so they do not loose their market to the substitutes. These product lines will also help the product to be well recognized by the consumer among other competitors. The Threat of Entry: The threat of entry deals with the powers, which is affected by the ability of new competitor to enter your market. The threat of entry is very low, as it would take a long time and huge find to establish themselves among the consumers. As the three major competitors that are considered in this analysis are Kellogg’s, weetabix and cereal partners (Nestle’s). The Kellogg’s keeps developing range of products, which account to ? 1. 1 billion; cereal partner owns ? 1. 1 billion and weetabix with ? 89 million cereals market, [34, 35, 33]. Therefore, for any new small venture company it is difficult to for them to get established into giant firms. Mintel forecasts that there would be a continuous growth for total breakfast cereal market, 20% at current price from 2007 – 2012, resulting in an estimated worth of ? 1. 5 billion. Avoiding the effects of inflation on food real growth is shown to be slightly lower to 10%. Value growth is set to continue but at a much lower rate than value, [13,14]. CONCLUSION: The breakfast cereals have a huge demand in the market as it caters to the taste of the consumer (health). The trend towards the healthy eating continues, consumers are increasingly looking forward for a â€Å"healthier start† to the day. This has resulted in strong growth at the luxury premium end of the market, as consumer trade up cereals contain wholegrain, dried fruits, super food and functional ingredients. There is only around 13% of the market, which do not consume cereals, to target these group there should be new product introduced to cater their needs. Even though the market of breakfast cereals is saturated there is always been a growing demand. The success of frequency promoting campaign have pushed volume growth over the last two years, as consumer start to eat cereal more than once a day and occasional buyer start to eat cereal each day, [18]. The branded products continue to dominate the cereal markets as the consumer trust brands and often finds the quality and taste of own label product inferior to that of branded. In a established market with high penetration and frequency of consumption, brand loyalty is high as the manufacturer allocates a significant amount of marketing spend in developing a long term relationship between the consumer base and their cereal brands. Ready to eat cereals have biggest brands and the largest amount of shelf space given over to them. Evaluation of tools / Limitation: The evaluation of tools / limitation in the pest analysis and porters five forces gives an idea, which is better than the other is to be discussed below: Pest Analysis: This deals with the whole industry as such and it may be difficult to forecast on the future trends about the industries. This analysis gives overall information on the industry that can help in understanding the macro environment of the industry. They deal with all the manufacturer of that particular industry and gives wider knowledge of them. They are potential risk in the market, conducted and regular basis. Porter’s five forces: in this care should be taken that the models is not underestimated or underemphasize the importance of the strength of the organization (inside out strategy). The model helps to analysis individual business strategies, as it does not cope with interdependencies within the range of large companies. From the theoretical perspective, the model does not address the possibilities that an industry could be attractive due to certain companies are in it. The environments, which are characterized by rapid, systemic and radical change, require more flexible, dynamic or evolving approach to formulate the strategy. The strength of this analysis is that its as strong tool for competitive analysis at industry level and provides useful inputs for performing Swot analysis. APPENDICES Appendix 1: UK retail sales of breakfast cereals, 2002-07 000 tonnesIndex? mIndex? m at 2002 pricesIndexâ‚ ¬mIndex 20024041001,0901001,0901001,734100 20034091011,1171021,1031011,61593 20044151031,1431051,1221031,68597 20054191041,1691071,1341041,71099 20064241051,2161121,1551061,784103 2007 (est. )4321071,2801171,1951101,895109 Source: Mintel Appendix 2: UK retail volume and value sales of breakfast cereal, by type, 03-07 200320052007 (est)% change% change m%? m%? m%2003-052005-07 RTE cereal1,049941,084931,195933. 310. 2 Hot cereal686857857250. 0 Total1,1171001,1691001,2801004. 79. 5 000 tonnes %000 tonnes%000 tonnes% change 03- 05% change 05- 07 RTE cereal3668936988380880. 83. 0 Hot cereal43114912511214. 04. 1 Total4091004191004311002. 42. 9 Data have been revised since the last report . Source: Mintel Appendix 3: UK retail volume and value sales of RTE cereal, 2002-07 000 tonnesIndex? mIndex? m at 2002 pricesIndexâ‚ ¬mIndex 20023651001,0241001,0241001,629100 20033661001,0491021,0361011,51693 20043681011,0701041,0501031,57797 20053691011,0841061,0511031,58697 0063721021,1291101,0721051,656102 2007 (est)3801041,1951171,1161091,769109 Source: mintel Appendix 4: UK retail sales of breakfast cereals, 2002-12 Current pricesAt 2007 prices 000 tonnesIndex? mIndex? mIndex 2002404941,090851,16791 2003409951,117871,18192 2004415961,143891,20194 2005418971,169911,21495 2006424981,216951,23797 2007 (est)4311001,2801001,280100 20084301001,3221031,300102 20094351011,3851081,336104 20104371011,4301121,364107 20114401021,4821161,389109 20124421031,5361201,414110 % change 2002-0771710 % change 2007-1232010 Source: mintel Appendix 5: UK population changes, by age and socio-economic status,02-12 Source: National Statistics/GAD/Mintel Appendix 6: Agreement with selected lifestyle statements, 2003-07 Base: adults aged 15+ 2003200520072005-07 %%%% point change Agree: I often skip meals to keep my weight down15. 114. 014. 6-0. 5 Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB Q4 2003-07/Mintel Agreement with selected lifestyle statements, 2003-07 Base: adults aged 15+ 2003200520072003-07 %%%% point change Any agree: I am prepared to pay more for foods that dont contain artificial additives34. 843. 545. 8+11 I consider my diet to be very healthy38. 641. 544. 1+5. Appendix 7: Agreement with selected lifestyle statements on food, 7-10s, 03-07 Base: youths aged 7-10 200320052007 %%% Agree: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day56. 756. 863. 5 Taken from the youth TGI survey of around 6,000 youths aged 7-19 Source: Youth TGI, BMRB Autumn 2003-07/Mintel Agreement with selected lifestyle statements on food, 11-14s, 2003-07 Base: youths aged 11-14 2003200 52007 %%% Agree: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day57. 357. 665. 7 Taken from the youth TGI survey of around 6,000 youths aged 7-19 Source: Youth TGI, BMRB Autumn 2003-07/Mintel Appendix 8: Demographic change: UK retail volume and value sales of RTE cereal, 2002-12 Current pricesAt 2007 prices 000 tonnesIndex? mIndex? mIndex 2002365961,024861,09792 2003366961,049881,10993 2004368971,070901,12494 2005369971,084911,12694 2006372981,129941,14896 2007 (est)3801001,1951001,195100 20083791001,2301031,210101 20093831011,2891081,243104 20103831011,3291111,268106 20113851011,3761151,290108 20123861021,4251191,312110 % change 2002-074179 % change 2007-1221910 Source: mintel UK retail volume and value sales of hot cereal, 2002-12 Current pricesAt 2007 prices 000 tonnesIndex? mIndex? Index 2002397666787183 2003438468807285 2004479273867790 200549968510088104 2006521028710288104 2007 (est)511008510085100 200851999110790106 2009521029611393109 20105310510111996113 20115510710612499116 201256110111130102120 % change 2002-07312920 % change 2007-12103020 Source: Mintel Appendix 9: Number of times consumers eat breakfast per week, January 2007 Base: 2,159 adults aged 18+ who eat breakfast Source: Putting Breakfast First Survey Breakfast Cereal Information Service. January 2007 Appendix 10: Product eaten at breakfast and frequency, December 2006 Base: 2,159 consumers who eat breakfast FruitBrown bread/toastWhite bread/toastCroissant/ other pastriesYogurtBowl of cereal Every day12771420 5 to 6 times444-213 3 to 4 times a week99101414 Once or twice a week (usually weekends)711125310 Once or twice a week (usually midweek)911113512 Once a fortnight778556 Once a month666955 Less often15191725159 Never302425495512 Don’t know111231 Source: Putting Breakfast First Survey Breakfast Cereal Information Service. January 2007 Appendix 11: Consumption of cold breakfast cereals in the last 12 months, 2003-07 2003200520072005-07 %%%% point change All users8786. 287. 2+1. 0 Heavy users6. 97. 36. 8-0. 5 Medium users38. 538. 439. 3+0. 9 Light users40. 439. 440+0. 6 Non-users1313. 812. 8-0. 2 Base: adults aged 15+ Heavy users – more than once a day; Medium users – once a day Light users – 2/3 times a week or less Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB Autumn 2003, Q4 2005 2007/Mintel Consumption of hot breakfast cereals in the last 12 months, 2003-07 2003200520072005-07 %%%% point change All users42. 645. 750. 34. 6 Heavy users5. 66. 88. 41. 6 Medium users7. 28. 310. 82. 5 Light users27. 328. 329. 51. 2 Non-users57. 454. 49. 7-4. 6 Base: adults aged 15+ Heavy users – once a day or more; Medium users – 2/3 times a week Light users – once a week or less Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB Autumn 2003, Q4 2005 2007/Mintel Appendix 12: Signpost: Appendix 13: Value share of sub-sections of the RTE breakfast cereal market, 2007 Cereal? m%Brand examplesG rowing or declining Kids501. 942Coco Pops, Rice Crispies, Sugar Puffs, Mega Munchers, Fruit LoopsGrowing Naturally good346. 629Jordan’s, Dorset, Alpen, Special KGrowing Favorites239. 020Cornflakes, Crunchy NutGrowing Reduced fat/calorie/sugar95. 68Health Living, Reduced Sugar, Reduced SaltDeclining Organic free from12. 01Jordan’s Organic, Doves FarmGrowing * For sector definitions please see appendix Source: Mintel Appendix 14: Seasonal changes: Source: Nielsen Media Research/Mintel Appendix 15: UK retail distribution of breakfast cereal, 2003-07 200320052007 (est)% change% change ?m%? m%? m%2003-052005-07 Grocery multiples1,039931,094941,203945. 310. 0 Convenience404393383-2. 5-1. 5 Independent/others*383363383-5. 36. 7 Total1,1171001,1691001,2801004. 79. 5 * includes health food discount stores Source: Mintel Appendix 16: Opportunities and threats in the competing markets, 2002-06 Market size (2006) % change 02-06Major inhibitorsMajor driversStrategies for growth Fresh fruit ?3,796m +20. 2% Highly competitive market Loss leading itemsThe 5 a day message – This government sponsored guideline is heavily promoted and actively taught in schools. The obesity epidemic a greater focus on health which is leading to increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Increasign wealth and familiarity with fruits means that consumers are more open to trying new options. Conveniently packaged products that can fetch a higher price. Organic fruit Fair-trade products (particularly bananas) Expansion into premium and rare/exotic varieties The introduction of locally sourced options Superfoods and eating for health Yogurt ?1,397m +28. 6%Pressure on prices Mixed messages and confusing health claimThe rise of healthy indulgence Popularity of functional products Rising levels of obesity Demand for natural products Consumers self diagnosing minor digestive health complaintsOrganic products at competitive prices More premium cream based products perfect for indulgence. Free from range expanding, products catering for different health needs. Child targeted products that please both parent and child. Bread ?2115m +10. 3Rising raw material prices Growing fear of the white bread Awareness of complex carbs Home Baking resurgence Decline in heavy usageHealth eating trends more opportunities for high value breads Rise of the foodie The health movement particularly the turn away from white breadHigh value artesian style breads. Super food breads with toppings including nuts and seeds Smaller more convenient loafs White breads with the goodness of brown Cereal bars ?270 56%The number of consumers prepared to purchase Relative price to breakfast cereals Healthy eating trends Time poor cash rich consumer The resurgence of breakfast from a health perspective The trend towards healthy yet natural products. Large number of market players, who are prepared to innovate Good healthy snack alternativeNatural and free from options Indulgent options that can be eaten as a necessity and a treat. Mixed selection packs. Super food and functional food versions. Source: mintel Appendix 17: Price per Kilo of RTE Brands from Selected Supermarkets, January 2008 Source: Storechecks/Mintel Price per Kilo of Hot-Cereal Brands from Selected Supermarkets, January 2008 Source: Storechecks/Mintel Appendix 18: Main monitored media spend, by advertiser, 2003-07 ?m20032004200520062007* ?m? m? m? m? m Kelloggs34. 343. 849. 252. 554. 6 Nestle18. 720. 619. 821. 224. 5 Weetabix8. 04. 19. 311. 910. 9 Jordans0. 50. 71. 11. 81. 7 Quakers1. 71. 70. 11. 70. 4 * Jan-November 2007 Source: Nielsen Media Research/Mintel Appendix 19: Map of manufacturers and brands in the breakfast cereals market, 2008 Kellogg’sCrunchy OatbakesCountry Store All-BranHoney Loops Bran FlakesJust Right Coco PopsLuxury Muesli CornflakesRicicles Crunchy NutStart FrostiesRice Crispies Fruit ‘n FibreSpecial K OptivitaWheats Cereal Partners UK (Nestle)CheeriosFitnesse Oat CheeriosAlmond Oats Shredded WheatNesquik ClustersOats More Golden NuggetsForce Flakes Cinnamon Cookie Crisp Shreddies WeetabixWeetabixOatibix WeetaflakesWeetos Alpen CerealsStars Crunchy BranOatiflakes Ready Brek Source: Mintel Appendix 20: The Weetabix Food Company Timeline 1932 Weetabix founded by two South Africans who introduced the Weetabix breakfast products to the UK 1936 Weetabix Limited was incorporated by, among others, the George family 1967 Weetabix entered the Canadian market 968 Weetabix entered the US market 1971 Alpen Muesli launched 1991 Ready Brek, acquired from Lyons Tetley 2002 Alpen bars launched 2004 Seriously Oaty launched 2005 Weetaflakes launched 2006 Alpen Light bars launched 2006 Oatibix launched 2007 Oatiflakes launched 2007 Alpen Luxury range launched 2007 Alpen Groove bars launched Source: weetabix Ltd. 2008. Appendix 21: The top-selling breakfast cereals in the UK, by estimated brand shares, 2006-07. Source: Mintel 200620072006-07 ?m%? m%% change Weetabix95. 48102. 587. 4 Special K90. 5799. 489. 8 Corn Flakes66. 565. 65-0. 6 Crunchy Nut Cornflakes57. 4564. 6512. 5 Coco Pops39. 9343. 037. 8 Rice Krispies35. 0343. 0322. 9 Shreddies34. 0333. 83-0. 6 Oatso Simple28. 2232. 8316. 3 Cheerios28. 2231. 029. 9 Frosties27. 3229. 728. 8 Shredded Wheat27. 0226. 62-1. 5 All Bran Bran Flakes 27. 3225. 62-6. 2 Fruit and Fibre22. 4220. 52-8. 5 Sugar Puffs20. 4219. 52-4. 4 Kelloggs Variety16. 6118. 4110. 8 Weetabix Minis17. 5116. 01-8. 6 Shreaded Wheat Bitesize14. 6116. 4112. 3 Country Crisp14. 0113. 01-7. 1 Alpen13. 6113. 31-2. 2 Crunchy Nut Clusters11. 7113. 3113. 7 Own Label237. 620243. 0202. 3 Others292. 24310. 0246. 2 Total1,2161001,2801005. 3 Appendix 22: Key developments in the Kellogg’s portfolio, 2007 BrandNew product developmentDriver/Motivation Special KSpecial K Bliss, Special K Susta in, Special K Oats Honey Drop a Jean Size ChallengeMore variation of health options to keep the consumer engaged in the brand A promotion designed to increase frequency of purchase. Special K range Mini BreaksGuilt-free snack designed as a healthy alternative to crisps Coco PopsMega Munchers, Crunchy Curls, Creations, Moons and StarsEngage children in Coco Pops despite limited advertising. CornflakesHint of Honey, Cornflakes MultigrainA more demanding health conscious audience Fruit and FibreRelaunchedA more demanding health conscious audience Source: Mintel Reference: Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix 9 Appendix 10 Appendix 11 Appendix 12 Appendix 13 Appendix 14 Appendix 15 Appendix 16 Appendix 17 Appendix 18 Appendix 19 Appendix 20 Appendix 21 Appendix 22 Breakfast cereals in UK, Mintel Report (2008) http://academic. mintel. com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show/display/id=227674/list/id=227674=NSItem=News=1/displ y/id=233120=233120 [accessed on 1/03/2008] 24. Benefits of breakfast cereals, The European Breakfast Cereal Association, (2008) ceereal. eu/documents/20070312%20Final%20Brochure. pdf [accessed on 10/052008] 25. Information nutritional signpost labeling- breakfast Cereals Criteria, Food standard law, (2008) foodstandards. gov. uk/multimedia/pdfs/breakfastcerealpaper. pdf [accessed on 13/04/2008] 26. Regulation and legislation on breakfast cereals, Food Standards Agency (2008) food. gov. uk/foodindustry/regulation/ [25/05/2008] 27. Regulation on Fortification, British Nutrition Foundation (2008) nutrition. org. uk/home. asp? siteId=43=434=323=299=1 [accessed on 14/03/07] 28. The UK Breakfast Cereals Market Has Grown In Value Terms, BNET United Kingdom (2007) http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2007_June_11/ai_n19207742/pg_1 [accessed on 2/04/2008] 29. Isomalt- artificial sweeteners information, Palatinit (2008) beneo-palatinit. com/en/Food_Ingredients/ISOMALT/ [accessed on 23/04/2008] 30) Isomalt sweetener information, Isomalt from Palatinit (2008) heingredients. co. uk/Palatinit%20GmbH/isomalt_main_page. htm [accessed on 23/04/2008] 31) Information on Kellogg’s, Kellogg’s (2008): kelloggs. co. uk/ [accessed on 19/04/2008] 32) Information on Cereal Partners, Cereal Partners (2008): cerealpartners. co. uk/ [accessed on 19/04/2008] 33) Information on Weetabix, Weetabix (2008): weetabix. co. uk/ [accessed on 19/04/2008] 34) Case study on Kellogg’s, The Times 100 (2008): theti mes100. co. uk/studies/view-summaryusing-aims-objectives-to-create-business-strategy6-267. hp [accessed on10/05/2008] 35) Cereal partners expand despite falling market, Bakery and snacks (2006) bakeryandsnacks. com/news/ng. asp? id=70006-cereal-partners-worldwide-nestl-cereals-general-mills [accessed on 21/04/2008] Bibliography Books: 1) Fast. B. R et all. , Breakfast cereals and how they are made. , American association of cereal chemists, inc. 2) Johnson. G et all. , (1999). , Exploring corporate strategy. , 5th edition. , Prentice Hall. Websites: 1) A Review of the UK Food Market, Cornwall Taste of the West (2006) ornwalltasteofthewest. co. uk/idupload/images/the_uk_food_market. pdf [accessed on 15/05/2008] 2) Ban on Unnecessary Colour for Children, The Management System Community (2008) http://businessassurance. com/food/news/ [accessed on 20/03/2008] 3) Breakfast cereals in UK, Mintel Report (2008) http://academic. mintel. com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show/displ ay/id=227674/list/id=227674type=NSItemclass=Newspage=1/display/id=233120anchor=233120 [accessed on 1/03/2008] 4) Breakfast cereals: Global industry guide, Report Buyer (2008) reportbuyer. om/food_drink/bread_bakery/breakfast_cereals_global_industry_guide. html [accessed on 10/04/2008] 5) Breakfast Food statistics, Topher’s Breakfast cereal Character Guide (205) lavasurfer. com/cereal-stats. html [accessed on 13/05/2008] 6) Breakfast Reports in United Kingdom, The keynote (2008) keynote. co. uk/CnIsapi. dll? fld=Xalias=kn2k1uni=2322SetUserType=1jump=collapseLevel=0fromPage=StatAZAutoShowFirstRecord=1search=SY%20=%2010-1922-55985Browser=NETSCAPE [accessed on 12/04/2008] 7) Benefits of breakfast cereals, The European Breakfast Cereal Association, (2008) eereal. eu/documents/20070312%20Final%20Brochure. pdf 8) Case study on Kellogg’s, The Times 100 (2008) thetimes100. co. uk/studies/view-summaryusing-aims-objectives-to-create-business-strategy6-267. php [accessed on10 /05/2008] 9) Cereal Growth Slow as Challenge Continue, Food Navigator (2007) foodnavigator-usa. com/news/ng. asp? n=79780-mintel-kellogg-general-m

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Religion Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Religion - Assignment Example The epic â€Å"Book of Gilgamesh† was used to influence other people to magnify the king’s power. In fact, the real king Gilgamesh was worshipped after his death because of this book’s influence ( the house of,2010). Historically, a kingdom’s influence (during such civilization) is based on its religion. An example of a similar civilization is that of Egypt where people perceive the Pharaoh as a god. Hence, respect is immense for the said leader. â€Å"Astrologys ancient beginnings are also traced to Mesopotamia at least as far back as 2001 BCE. These early records reveal a complex cosmology in which the Sun, the Moon and the planets represented gods who possessed the power to direct and intervene in the course of physical events† ( In fact, many people read the horoscope in newspapers scouring for any prediction about their future. This influence was ushered by the coming of New Age religion. In conclusion, old civilizations like Mesopotamia has highly-influenced religious beliefs which has permeated even modern -day societies

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Unit 6, Chapter 13 &14 part 2 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Unit 6, Chapter 13  part 2 - Coursework Example Polarized attitudes of â€Å"We vs. They† have established because they have developed their own focus rather than building a company focus. They are solely concerned with the profitability of their own units rather than looking on the bigger picture. Communication and cooperation had slacken-off and they are not sharing the vital information with each other, which can strongly affect the organizational productivity. Manufacturing and Marketing are the core functions of an organization so harmonious relationship between these two interfaces are crucial antecedents to business success. As the case has portrayed conflict between these two functions, we must manage the conflict between these units properly in order to run successful business operations. We first need to understand the issues these departments face, their strategies and the structure under which they operate. As specified in the case that the company is growing under a functional structure, this seems to be the ultimate root cause of the problem. The functional structure has its inherent disadvantages. Under such structures, the functions are detached from each other and they develop a â€Å"WE† attitude. Problems are analyzed from one perspective and the individuals within each function are isolated from each other and they have a little understanding of each other. Thus the conflict can be best managed by making structural changes in it. The most viable solution to the above problem is to move from a functional structure to a process-oriented or product team structure. The product team structure forms teams comprising of individuals from different organizational departments such as manufacturing, marketing, engineering and finance and these teams share common goals and objectives. Such teams assure that issues related with marketing and manufacturing departments will receive proper attention early on and provides a cross-sectional,

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Race and Minorities in the Jury Box Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Race and Minorities in the Jury Box - Assignment Example The selection is most difficult when it is a high-profile case and everyone has heard of the defendant. Introduction In 2006, it was estimated through the United States Bureau of Justice statistics, that over 1.1 million adults were convicted of felonies and, of this amount, 38% were Black. Most of these cases were handled in state courts and, those who had been arrested and remained in jail, had their cases handled more quickly than others did. Mainly this was due to the fact that most could not hire a lawyer or post bail (Gabbidon & Greene, 2013). There are several processes in how cases move forward to a trial, but once it does, and the case requires a jury, then there will be a session where members of the public are requested to appear for potential selection to act as a juror in the case. This paper concerns the process of jury selection and how it can be biased by race and minority composition, or lack of it (Gabbidon & Greene, 2013). When it comes to jury selection, there has been considerable discourse about the makeup of jurors and whether jurors should be the same race as the defendant, or not the same race as the defendant, or a mixture (AP, 2008). 1.When determining suitable jurors for a trial, it is never made publicly clear why lawyers might choose one juror over another. However, some policymakers and legal scholars have now proposed reforms to ensure that there is sufficient variety of racial minorities on any given jury. While the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was created to eliminate racial discrimination in jury selection, yet it still does exist, and it happens more often in Southern states (EJI, 2010). Some counties have excluded almost 80% of qualified Blacks in selecting juries in counties that have a majority population of Blacks, citing obscure reasons such as being single, married, too old, too young, for having attended black colleges, or not having attended college, having an out-of-wedlock child, and even for how they walk (EJI, 2010). It can also be a case of religious views or tendencies to not want to send someone to jail (AP, 2008). How this detailed information was obtained is unclear unless it was through interviews or surveys with lawyers. In justifying reforms for the composition of a jury, the primary factor that should hold sway is that any prospective juror must demonstrate an understanding of the legal process, and a willingness to not be biased. 2. The jury composition should be made of all races, not just all White or all Black, or all Hispanic (EJI, 2010). Lawyers should make a reasonable attempt at including all races and minorities, when possible.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Calorimeters and Calorimetry

Calorimeters and Calorimetry Calorimetry is the science associated with determining the changes in energy of a system by measuring the heat exchanged with the surroundings. Now that sounds very textbooky; but in this last part of Lesson 2, we are going to try to make some meaning of this definition of calorimetry. In physics class (and for some, in chemistry class), calorimetry labs are frequently performed in order to determine the heat of reaction or the heat of fusion or the heat of dissolution or even the specific heat capacity of a metal. These types of labs are rather popular because the equipment is relatively inexpensive and the measurements are usually straightforward. In such labs, a calorimeter is used. A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat transferred to or from an object. Most students likely do not remember using such a fancy piece of equipment known as a calorimeter. Fear not; the reason for the lack of memory is not a sign of early Alzheimers. Rather, it is because the ca lorimeter used in high school science labs is more commonly referred to as a Styrofoam cup. It is a coffee cup calorimeter usually filled with water. The more sophisticated cases include a lid on the cup with an inserted thermometer and maybe even a stirrer. Coffee Cup Calorimetry So how can such simple equipment be used to measure the quantity of heat gained or lost by a system? We have learned on the previous page, that water will change its temperature when it gains or loses energy. And in fact, the quantity of energy gained or lost is given by the equation Q = mwater†¢Cwater†¢ÃŽâ€Twater where Cwater is 4.18 J/g/ °C. So if the mass of water and the temperature change of the water in the coffee cup calorimeter can be measured, the quantity of energy gained or lost by the water can be calculated. The assumption behind the science of calorimetry is that the energy gained or lost by the water is equal to the energy lost or gained by the object under study. So if an attempt is being made to determine the specific heat of fusion of ice using a coffee cup calorimeter, then the assumption is that the energy gained by the ice when melting is equal to the energy lost by the surrounding water. It is assumed that there is a heat exchange between the iceand the water in the cup and that no other objects are involved in the heat exchanged. This statement could be placed in equation form as Qice = Qsurroundings = -Qcalorimeter The role of the Styrofoam in a coffee cup calorimeter is that it reduces the amount of heat exchange between the water in the coffee cup and the surrounding air. The value of a lid on the coffee cup is that it also reduces the amount of heat exchange between the water and the surrounding air. The more that these other heat exchanges are reduced, the more true that the above mathematical equation will be. Any error analysis of a calorimetry experiment must take into consideration the flow of heat from system to calorimeter to other parts of the surroundings. And any design of a calorimeter experiment must give attention to reducing the exchanges of heat between the calorimeter contents and the surroundings. Bomb Calorimetry The coffee cup calorimeters used in high school science labs provides students with a worthwhile exercise in calorimetry. But at the professional level, a cheap Styrofoam cup and a thermometer isnt going to assist a commercial food manufacturer in determining the Calorie content of their products. For situations in which exactness and accuracy is at stake, a more expensive calorimeter is needed. Chemists often use a device known as a bomb calorimeter to measure the heat exchanges associated with chemical reactions, especially combustion reactions. Having little to nothing to do with bombs of the military variety, a bomb calorimeter includes a reaction chamber where the reaction (usually a combustion reaction) takes place. The reaction chamber is a strong vessel that can withstand the intense pressure of heated gases with exploding. The chamber is typically filled with mostly oxygen gas and the fuel. An electrical circuit is wired into the chamber in order to electrically ignite the c ontents in order to perform a study of the heat released upon combustion. The reaction chamber is surrounded by a jacket of water with a thermometer inserted. The heat released from the chamber warms the water-filled jacket, allowing a scientist to determine the quantity of energy released by the reaction. Source: Wikimedia Commons; thanks to Lisdavid89. Solving Calorimetry Problems Now lets look at a few examples of how a coffee cup calorimeter can be used as a tool to answer some typical lab questions. The next three examples are all based on laboratory experiments involving calorimetry. Example Problem 1:A physics class has been assigned the task of determining an experimental value for the heat of fusion of ice. Anna Litical and Noah Formula dry and mass out 25.8-gram of ice and place it into a coffee cup with 100.0 g of water at 35.4 °C. They place a lid on the coffee cup and insert a thermometer. After several minutes, the ice has completely melted and the water temperature has lowered to 18.1 °C. What is their experimental value for the specific heat of fusion of ice? The basis for the solution to this problem is the recognition that the quantity of energy lost by the water when cooling is equal to the quantity of energy required to melt the ice. In equation form, this could be stated as Qice = -Qcalorimeter (The negative sign indicates that the ice is gaining energy and the water in the calorimeter is losing energy.) Here the calorimeter (as in the Qcalorimeterterm) is considered to be the water in the coffee cup. Since the mass of this water and its temperature change are known, the value of Qcalorimeter can be determined. Qcalorimeter = m†¢C†¢ÃŽâ€TQcalorimeter = (100.0 g)†¢(4.18 J/g/ °C)†¢(18.1 °C 35.4 °C)Qcalorimeter = -7231.4 J The negative sign indicates that the water lost energy. The assumption is that this energy lost by the water is equal to the quantity of energy gained by the ice. So Qice = +7231.4 J. (The positive sign indicates an energy gain.) This value can be used with the equation from the previous page to determine the heat of fusion of the ice. Qice = mice†¢ÃŽâ€Hfusion-ice+7231.4 J = (25.8 g)†¢ÃŽâ€Hfusion-iceΔHfusion-ice = (+7231.4 J)/(25.8 g)ΔHfusion-ice = 280.28 J/gΔHfusion-ice = 2.80102 J/g (rounded to two significant figures) Example Problem 2:A chemistry student dissolves 4.51 grams of sodium hydroxide in 100.0 mL of water at 19.5 °C (in a calorimeter cup). As the sodium hydroxide dissolves, the temperature of the surrounding water increases to 31.7 °C. Determine the heat of solution of the sodium hydroxide in J/g. Once more, the solution to this problem is based on the recognition that the quantity of energy released when sodium hydroxide dissolves is equal to the quantity of energy absorbed by the water in the calorimeter. In equation form, this could be stated as QNaOH dissolving = -Qcalorimeter (The negative sign indicates that the NaOH is losing energy and the water in the calorimeter is gaining energy.) Since the mass and temperature change of the water have been measured, the energy gained by the water (calorimeter) can be determined. Qcalorimeter = m†¢C†¢ÃŽâ€TQcalorimeter = (100.0 g)†¢(4.18 J/g/ °C)†¢(31.7 °C 19.5 °C)Qcalorimeter = 5099.6 J The assumption is that this energy gained by the water is equal to the quantity of energy released by the sodium hydroxide when dissolving. So QNaOH-dissolving = -5099.6 J. (The negative sign indicates an energy lost.) This quantity is the amount of heat released when dissolving 4.51 grams of the sodium hydroxide. When the heat of solution is determined on a per gram basis, this 5099.6 J of energy must be divided by the mass of sodium hydroxide that is being dissolved. ΔHsolution = QNaOH-dissolving / mNaOHΔHsolution = (-5099.6 J) / (4.51 g)ΔHsolution = -1130.7 J/gΔHsolution = -1.13103 J/g (rounded to three significant figures) Example Problem 3:A large paraffin candle has a mass of 96.83 gram. A metal cup with 100.0 mL of water at 16.2 °C absorbs the heat from the burning candle and increases its temperature to 35.7 °C. Once the burning is ceased, the temperature of the water was 35.7 °C and the paraffin had a mass of 96.14 gram. Determine the heat of combustion of paraffin in kJ/gram. GIVEN: density of water = 1.0 g/mL. As is always the case, calorimetry is based on the assumption that all the heat lost by the system is gained by the surroundings. It is assumed that the surroundings is the water that undergoes the temperature change. In equation form, it could be stated that

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: Final Examination

University of Waterloo Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering E&CE 231 Final Examination – Spring 2000 Aids: Formula Sheets (attached), Scientific Calculator Time Allowed: 3 hours Exam Type: Closed Book Instructor: C. R. Selvakumar Date: August 10, 2000 Max Marks: 100 Instructions: Answer all questions in PART-A and any two questions in full from PART-B. State your assumptions clearly. Be concise, precise and clear in your answers General assumptions to be made when not specified in a question: (a) Assume that the semiconductor is Silicon. (b) Assume that the temperature T = 300K c) Use the data given in the formula sheets where needed. (d) Use the following expressions for the Effective Density of States in the Conduction Band (NC) and in the Valence Band (NV) respectively: 3 2 3 3 3 ? m ? ? T ? 2 ? 3 N C = 2. 5 ? 1019 ? ? cm ? m 0 ? ? 300 ? * n ? m* ? 2 ? T ? 2 p ?3 19 N V = 2. 5 ? 10 ? ? m ? ? 300? cm ? ? 0? PART -A 1a) Consider a Silicon p+-n diode with the foll owing doping densities: NA = 1019 cm-3 and ND is 1016 cm-3. The diode has an area of 100  µm by 20  µm. (i) Without doing any calculations, sketch the capacitance versus reverse voltage (VR) starting from VR = 0. (4 marks) (ii)Calculate the voltage at which you will obtain the minimum capacitance and also determine (calculate) the minimum capacitance at that voltage. (10 marks) (iii) Derive the mathematical relations you use in calculating the quantities in (ii) above. (16 marks) 1b) Assuming that the p+ region and the n-region of the diode described in 1a) above are ‘long’ compared to the minority carrier diffusion lengths in those regions, show how you would obtain the complete Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristic of the diode. You can assume that there is no recombination in the space-charge layer and you need not solve the continuity equation.Sketch the electron and hole current distributions in the entire device. (10 marks) Page 1 PART B 2a) Draw a clearly labe lled band diagram of an n-p-n transistor under thermal equilibrium and superimpose on it a band diagram of the same transistor when it is under normal forward active mode of operations. (8 marks) 2b) Derive an expression for the common emitter current gain $ ($ = IC/IB), in terms of the doping densities in the different regions, thickness and carrier diffusivities and diffusion lengths. Assume that there is no recombination in the neutral base or in the space-charge layers.Also, assume that the conventional reverse saturation current of the reverse-biased diode, IC0, is negligible. Assume that short-region approximation is valid in the base and that the bandgap narrowing in the emitter is important. No need to solve continuity equations and you can assume the expected carrier distributions. (12 marks) 2c) Obtain the modified Ebers-Moll (EM) equations from the original EM equations given in the formula sheet. Sketch Common-Base output characteristics based on the modified EM equation s and show the Forward Active Region of operation, Saturation Region and Cut-off Region. 10 marks) 3a) A silicon n-p-n transistor has an emitter doping NDE = 1020 cm-3 and a base doping NAB = 1016 cm-3. The emitter is 1  µm thick and assume that the hole diffusion length in the emitter is 0. 1 :m. The base is 0. 35 :m thick and you can use the values of mobilities and lifetimes given in the tables in the formula sheet to determine the electron diffusion length in the base. Verify that the short-region approximation is applicable to the base. Assume that the carrier recombinations in the neutral base an in the emitter-base depletion layer are zero. When this transistor is operating in the normal forward active mode with 0. volts forward bias across the emitter-base junction and a 2 volt reverse bias across the collector-base junction, what is the collector current density (JC) and the base current density (JB) ? You can assume that the depletion layer thicknesses are negligible at both junctions. Assume that bandgap narrowing for the emitter doping is 100 meV and the room temperature is 300K. (15 marks) 3b) What is the emitter efficiency of the transistor in 3a)? (5 marks) 3c) What do you understand by diffusion capacitance of a diode? Show (derive) that the diffusion capacitance of a p+ – n diode is approximately given by C Diffusion ?Qp Vt where Qp is the total injected minority hole charge on the n-side quasi-neutral=region and Vt is the thermal voltage (kT/q). Prove that the quantity Q p ? qAL p pn 0 e V Vt (10 marks) Page 2 4a) Consider an n-channel MOSFET and explain how the MOSFET operates using key band diagrams (along source, channel and drain and vertically along the metal gate, oxide and the channel region) and cross-sectional diagrams. State clearly wherefrom the channel electrons come and explain how this is controlled by the gate voltage. (10 marks) 4b) With reference to an n-p-n transistor, explain what is Early Effect and how it arises. Using an approximate sketch show the Early Voltage. Clearly illustrate your answer with the aid of carrier profiles and common-emitter output characteristics. (10 marks) 4c) Contrast the Temperature-dependence of Avalanche Breakdown Mechanism and Zener breakdown Mechanism. Illustrate your answer with sketches of Reverse bias I-V characteristics giving physical reasons. (10 marks) Page 3 E&CE 231 1/4 Formula Sheet C. R. Selvakumar E&CE 231 Formula Sheet 3 1 4? *2 g c (E) = 3 (2m n ) ( E ? E C )) 2 ; (E ? E c ) h 3 1 4? *2 2 g V (E) = 3 2m p ( E V ? E)) ; (E ? E V ) h 1 f FD (E) = (E-E F )/kT 1+ e p 0 = N V e (E V ? E F )/kT = n i e (Ei ?E F )/kT () n 0 p0 = n 2 i 3/2 ? 2? m* kT ? p N V = 2? ? 2 ? ? ?h ?  µn = q? c,n m* n and  µ p = q? c,p m* p ? max = ? qN A x p0 ? 0? r qN + x n0 D = ?0? r 1/2 x n0 ? 2? r ? 0 V0 ? NA =? ? q N D (N A + N D ) ? ? ? 2? r ? 0 V0 ? ND =? ? q N A (N A + N D ) ? ? 1/2 3/2 ? p 0 + N + = n0 + N A D + ? ?2 ? N D ? NA N + ? NA ? D ? + n2 ? + n0 = i 2 2 ? ? ? ? + ? N D x n0 = N A x p0 x p0 n 0 = N C e (E F ? EC )/ kT = n i e (E F ? E i )/kT ? 2? m* kT ? n N C = 2? ? 2 ?h ? ? kT ? n no p po ? kT ? N + N A ? D V0 = ln? ?= ln? ? q ? n2 ? q ? n2 ? i i p( x n0 ) = pn e qV / kT and ? pn = pn ( e qV / kT ? 1) 1/2 for n ? type , where ? c,n and ? ,p are mean time between collisions ? = qmn n + qm p p and r = 1/s dn ? dp ? ? ? J n = q? n µn ? + Dn ? ; J p = q ? p µ p ? ? D p ? ? ? dx ? dx ? D p Dn kT = = = 0. 0259 V at 300K  µ p  µn q n( ? x p0 ) = n p e qV / kT and ? n p = n p (e qV / kT ? 1) ? p( x n ) = ? pn e or ? p( x n ) = ? pn ( 0) e ? x p / Ln or ? n( x p ) = ? n p ( 0) e ?n( x p ) = ? n p e ? xn / L p ? x p / Ln ? Dn ? Dp ? I = qA? n p0 + p n0 ? (e qV/ kT ? 1) ? Lp ? Ln ? ? ? qN ? C j = A? Si d ? ? 2(V0 ? V ) ? 1/ 2 for p + ? n diffusion capacitance: C s = q 2 AL p kT p n0 e qV/kT for p + ? n n ? type regions of width, W: long base diode approx: I p = qAD p ? pn ( 0 )Lp short base diode approx: I p = qAD p ?p 1 dJ p ?n 1 dJ n =? + G ? Rp; = ? + G ? Rn ?t q dx ?t q dx Wm = L p = D p ? p and Ln = Dn ? n VT = d 2V d? ? ? 2= = where ? = q ( p ? n + N d ? N a ) dx ? 0 ? r dx dV 1 dE c 1 dE v 1 dE t ?= ? = = = dx q dx q dx q dx ? xn / L p 2? Si ( 2? F ) qN a for VG > Vth ? pn ( 0 ) W ? Si = ? 0 ? r ? Qd Qi + 2? F + ? ms ? , Ci Ci Q d = Q B = ? qN a x dm ,x dm = Wm ? Ci = Cox = 0 ox = i t ox d 1 2? ? Z? ? I D =  µ n Ci ? ? ? (VG ? VT )V D ? VD ? ? L? ? 2 ?  µ n Ci ? Z ? 2 I DSat = ? ? (V ? VT ) V Dsat = VG ? VT 2 ? L? G E&CE 231 2/4 Formula Sheet C. R. Selvakumar Eber-Moll Model (n-p-n transistor)I EBO (e VBE / Vt ? 1) â€Å"RIC I CBO (e VBC /Vt ? 1) â€Å"FIE ? VBE ? ? VBC ? I E = ? I ES ? e Vt ? 1? + ? R I CS ? e Vt ? 1? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? VBE ? ? VBC ? Vt ?e ? + I CS ? e Vt ? 1? I C = ? R I ES ? ? 1? ? ? ? ? ? ? E&CE 231 3/4 Formula Sheet C. R. Selvakumar Mobilities in Silicon N = doping density (cm ? 3 )  µ (N) =  µ min + Carrier type  µ0 N 1+ N ref :min :0 cm2 / (v. s) Nref cm-3 electron 88 1 251. 8 1. 26 x 1017 hole 54. 3 406. 97 2. 35 x 1017 Doping density Mobilities Lifetimes (J) as function of doping density N :n :p 1 1 = + cA N2 ? ? SRH 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1322. 3 1218. 2 777. 3 262. 1 114. 1 91. 5 457. 96 437. 87 330. 87 43. 23 68. 77 56. 28 cm 2 v. sec cm 2 v. sec cm ? 3 Doping density N cm-3 Lifetime J sec For both electrons and holes 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 9. 8 x 10-6 8. 3 x 10-6 3. 3 x 10-6 4. 5 x 10-7 3. 3 x 10-8 8. 3 x 10-10 Obtained using the above formula for lifetime using: JSRH = 10-5/(1 + 5 x 1016/N) and CA = 10-31 cm6s-1 E&CE 231 4/4 Formula Sheet C. R. Selvakumar Properties of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide PROPERTY Si GaAs atoms or molecules/ cm3 5. 0 x 1022 4. 42 x 1022 atomic or molecular weight 28. 08 144. 63 density g/cm3 2. 33 5. 32 breakdown field V/cm 3 x 105 4 x 105 dielectric constant, gr 11. 8 13. 1 effective density of tates: Nc cm-3 Nv cm-3 Physical Constants ?1. 38Ãâ€"10 ? 23 J / K ? k ? ?8. 62Ãâ€"10 ? 5 eV / K ? ? 31 m0 9. 11Ãâ€"10 kg ?0 8. 85Ãâ€"10 ? 14 ? r (Si) 2. 8 x 1019 1. 04 x 1019 4. 7 x 1017 7. 0 x 1018 11. 8 ? r (SiO 2 ) 3. 9 h electron affinity, eV 4. 05 6. 62Ãâ€"10 c 3Ãâ€"10 q 1. 6Ãâ€"10 4. 07 energy gap, eV 1. 12 1. 43 intrinsic carrier conc. , ni cm-3 at T = 300K 1. 5 x 1010 1. 8 x 106 effective mass electrons holes m*n = 1. 1 m0 m*p = 0. 56 m0 m*n = 0. 067 m0 m*p = 0. 48 m0 intrinsic mobility @ 300K electrons cm2/Vs holes cm2/Vs 1350 480 8500 400 diffusivity @300K: electrons cm2/s holes cm2/s 35 12. 5 220 10 F / cm 10 ? 34 J ? s cm / s ? 19 C

Sunday, November 10, 2019

My (Not So Unique) Holiday Family Traditions Essay

When our Sociology class was assigned to write about family traditions, I instantly became nervous because I couldn’t think of one tradition off the top of my head that was special and unique to my family. I sat there and wondered, should I tell the truth and reveal the fact that my family doesn’t have any traditions? Should I make one up and fake my way through the entire thing just to get a good grade? Should I take someone else’s family tradition and call it my own? As you can probably tell, I was completely stuck. I feel as though my family traditions are ones that are shared with other families around the world. The typical family traditions that I’m referring to are about are during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. During Thanksgiving, we always have our annual family dinner down at my grandmother’s house. All the women of the family cook different dishes such as turkey, stuffing, mashed potatoes, green beans, etc. The women usually si t around the dinner table while the men of the family assemble in the living room and watch TV, typically football. The children of the family usually sit at a separate table and after they are done, they usually go outside to play. Christmas traditions and the traditions of Thanksgiving are much in the same. Occasionally after everyone gets their stomachs full, we usually play a game called â€Å"catch phrase.† There is never a dull moment when we play this game. It is similar to charades in which you hold a device that shows you a word that you must describe to your teammates without saying the word directly. When I was assigned this essay, I went to my mother, hoping that we had a tradition that I just overlooked. Needless to say, I was back at square one, she couldn’t think of any that were unique! I began to look to my peers for help, which resulted in the usual, â€Å"Just say something obvious, like, ‘On the twenty-fifth day of December, my family opens presents that are left underneath an artificial tree by an obese man who has some strange obsession with red clothes and non-existent animals who can fly’!† That wasn’t much help either. In comparison to the traditional Caucasian holiday traditions, I researched via internet on the African Am erican holiday traditions. A common statement that I found was that â€Å"Today’s Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners are just a taste of how African Americans used to eat.† Before you slice into that sweet potato pie, douse those greens in hot sauce or cut a corner of macaroni and cheese this holiday season, consider where those traditions came from. In the late 19th  century, geography factored in how people celebrated the yuletide season. During this time, African Americans lived mostly a rural existence, which translated into a farm-to-table lifestyle. I found a blog of two sisters discussing their African American culture during the holiday seasons. Sisters Norma Jean and Carole Darden discussed their history and recipes in recounting African-American life and culture. Their grandmother’s traditions were passed down to them in which they will pass them down to their children and so on. She lived on a dairy farm and wanted milk and cream in the family’s dishes. A favorite dish was painted Christmas cookies, made with rose water and orange-flower water. Norma will be preparing Thanksgiving dinner for her family in November. She’s been cooking since age 9. Her dinner table will have turkey with corn bread dressing on the side, many quarts of giblet gravy, whole cranberry sauce and mashed potatoes. But in h omage to her stepfather, she’ll make smoked oysters for an appetizer, corn and peas as a side dish as well as yams in a cast-iron pot, without marshmallows. Just as he taught her. We live in an age in which it is hard to spend time together as a family. Many families today wonder if having quality time together is a thing of the past. We are inordinately busy, for one thing, whether household bread-winners or college students. Also, the definition of family has changed. We are dealing with new definitions and characterizations of the idea of family. Some of us have traditional families. Some families have divorced, single, and/or remarried parents, creating a rather confusing family tree. Some people choose to live their lives alone, but may still be close enough to some friends to consider them family. Whatever the circumstances, many of us honestly don’t know how to celebrate together. We may even see the word â€Å"tradition† as something dulling and old, having no meaning for or application to us personally; something usually being forced upon us. It is up to us to create new family traditions. Celebrating is not hard. We all know about celebrating and have some ways of doing it. The only challenge is to find new ways. Why do we need to celebrate tradition? It gives us something to look forward to and makes a formal statement that there are some things in life to be grateful for. The notion of honoring tradition is unsettling for some people; let alone creating new ones. We seem to think that traditions must be heavy and complex ideas that had been around for hundreds of years and will be around  for a hundred more. In my opinion, this is not true. It need not be big or religious at all. I believe a tradition is something that you do once that feels good, so you do it again and again. Tradition is in all our lives in one way or another. Without participation in such activities there would be no family bond or pride. Being involved in these activities brings people closer and makes us understand who we are. Everything we do and every day of our lives we take part in a tradition in one form or another. After writing this paper, I realize that my family traditions may not be unique to others, but they are special to me and the members of my family and that is something that I will always cherish and hope to pass down to future generations.