Friday, May 31, 2019
Racism Are We Better Off Colour stratagem?My background is Italian, so that makes me Italian-Canadian. The onlytime I have personally experienced racism was when I was cal lead awop. This is how it felt hurtful, degrading, humiliating. This iswhat it made me feel alike(p) as a person worthless, inferior, powerless.Is this what goes on in the world? Is it truly fair? That is what myexperience made me wonder.People who taunt others, in my opinion, are real insecure aboutthemselves. It might be because they are uncomfortable with who theyare as a person, or how they look, but whatever the reason is, theyonly dictate down others to build themselves up. These kind of people areoften very brave in front of others, but lose much of their power whenon their own. This goes to show, racism isnt just caused by just oneperson, but many people who have had ideas put into their heads. Theseleaders would be powerless without their followers. A far-famed exampleof this is Adolf Hitler .Hitler was a German dictator and soldier who vocalized his extremeracist veiws to the Mien Kampf. He was appointed chancellor in 1933,and clearly expressed his opinions, which led to the policy of theextermination of Jews. He was a great leader, and once even recieved abravery award in WWI.Hitler started a Great massacre, known as The final solution, in particular,the complete extermination of European Jews and others by the Nazis inGermany (1933-45). Jews, as well as others considered raciallyinferior by the Nazis, were killed in concentration camps. submergence camps were detention centres for people consideredracially or socially undesirable and political opponants.What went onin these camps was truely horrible gruesome medical experiments,slave labour, discusting and brutal distorted shape methods. Total Jewishdeaths estimated at more than 6 million.It is disturbing to even think that an evil character such(prenominal) as Hitlerwas admired and respected by so many people, when his veiws were soobviously distorted and cruel. What could drive someone to dosomething as terrible as that is beyond me. But, sadly, even thoughHolocaust is over, many people still believe Jews are dirty and dontdeserve to live. And the discrimanation doesnt end with Jewishpeople, people also discriminate against African Americans, Asians,Caucasions, Hispanics, and Oriental people.Organizations such as the KKK or the Black Panthers are strictly blackagainst white. They kill each other and promote extreme hate towards
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The Community of Enslaved Africans and their Religious & Spiritual Practices.During a most temperamental and dismal judgment of conviction in our nations history, we find that the Africans who endured horrible circumstances during slavery, found ways of peace and hope in their religious beliefs. During slavery, Africans where able to survive unendurable conditions by focusing on their spirituality.Christianity was amongst the slave community. Being that the vast majority of the slave community was born in America, converting slaves to Christianity was non a struggle. All slaves were not Christian, and slaves that had accepted Christianity were not official members of the church. Over time Slaves made Christianity their avow. There would be occurrences where church gatherings would hold both white and black members. Slave faith was both institutional and non institutional. The slave gatherings would be both formally organized and spontaneously adapted. These gatherings would usua lly take place at night in the woods. Slaves enjoyed their own meetings better because they could sing and pray as they wanted. In some cases slave masters would not allow attendance of church gatherings and prayer meetings, some slaves would happen flogging to attend these meetings. Christianity was transformed into by the slave community to its own particular experience. Teachings by white masters were usually geared towards reminding slaves that on replete(p) behavior to their white masters, they would be accepted into heaven and even then , they would be limited to a lesser heaven than there owners. Jesus was not talked about, teachings consisted only of the laws to not lie or steal from their masters. Slaves would soon start to hold their own gatherings to just sing and pray a... .... So ultimately, owners failed at this.Moreover, numerous owners later came to feel that Christianity may actually have encouraged rebellion (all those stories of Moses and the Israelites in Eg ypt, after all, talked about the liberation of the slaves), and so they began to discourage Christian missionaries from talk to the slaves. African Americans have taken their own spiritual, religious journey. God was looked upon as a source of peace and encouragement. The community of enslave Africans were able to use trust and spirituality as a way of overcoming the mental anguish of slavery on a daily basis. To a slave, religion was the most important eyeshot of their life. Nothing could come between their relationship with god. It was their rock, the only reason why they could wake up in the morning, the only way that they endured this most turbulent time in our history.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Discrimination Against Women as Addressed in Cantors Dilemma In his novel, Cantors Dilemma, Dr. Djerassi uses female characters to address sexual activityist issues arising from women integrating into the predominantly male acquisition field. The characters, Celestine hurt and Professor Arderly, are used to show examples of how women confirm little voice in the celestial sphere of science. The female characters suggest how women are often looked upon as sex objects rather than co-workers and they are given little opportunity to balance a scientific career with raising a family. By weaving these issues into his novel, Dr. Djerassi illustrates the following etymon Discrimination against women in the study of science is harmful to the progression of scientific exploration. If women are excluded from science, then an artificial limit is put on human resources. (The field of science will not utilize the potential female minds available.) The first issue that Dr. Djerassi casuall y mentions is that women are not adequately represented in the field of science. The character, Celestine Price strongly desires a career in chemistry. She faces the challenge of how to plot her map of success while taking into consideration the male dominated world of science. Her gray-headed high school chemistry teacher advises Celestine that if she ever wants to get an academic position at a top university, she has got to get plugged into the old boys network. He says to her, Make no mistake about it. Chemistry is still a mans world.1 Dr. Djerassi paints the picture of a boys clubhouse with a sign at the door reading, No girls allowed In this context, it is inferred that a woman has to prove her worth before the society of men will give her the privilege of working wit... ...roblems of integration. If the science world takes advantage of undiscovered female talent, science as a whole will benefit greatly. For example, the original group of ENIAC programmers consisted of 6 wome n. In 1946, these women helped to fetch the first operating stored-program computer.6 If female talent such as this goes to waste because of social neglect, the science world will never know what possible discoveries that could have been made with the help of women. If Dr. Djerassi is accurate with his examples of discrimination, the science world should take note of these problems and attempt to solve them. 1. Carl Djerassi, Cantors Dilemma (New York, New York. Penguin Books, 1989), 19. 2. ibidem 45. 3. Ibid. 45. 4. Ibid. 45. 5. Ibid. 20-21. 6. web site women in science/ women in computer science/ women involved in ENIAC program.
Journeys are moments in life that define and reconstruct the myths we ca-ca about ourselves and others. All too often the ideals of a biased community or select group are viewed as the model by which each(prenominal) individuals must follow. To escape the pressures of a collective standard a person must travel outside the constraints of a community and discover his or her give birth true identity. On such a journey one can expect moments of planned reflection or unexpected instances of revelation. A journey is all minute of my existence, as I travel through life and try to ascertain my own presence in its cycle. An essential journey occurred three geezerhood ago when I set out on a personal pilgrimage. I wanted to re-travel the time line of the past few years and make up the point where I had allowed the influence of others to determine my own c oncept of self. Self is non necessarily complex or intricate, but it does define the character of a person and how he or she wants to be viewed. In my own rush to fit in at college I had disregarded what I needed and complacently accepted the definitions of others. I expended my energy trying to model myself according to the contemplation of my peers, all the while ignoring principles which I felt were inherent to my survival. Once the missing skin perceptiveness of singularity is discovered, an individual must set out upon a journey and reconstruct the notions of self and identity. Understanding my own needs, I decided to embark on a solo expedition into the woods of Maine. The solo was an opportunity to disassociate myself from everything that I considered comfortable and safe. For two nights the only person I encountered was myself. After several(prenominal) days of paddling, my guide and I neared the island where... ...d in an unknown surrounding and somehow I had become part of it. I welcomed the crash of an animal over my dwell or the presence of the sand fleas. I journeyed into their environment a forei gner, and even in my most vulnerable stages of sleep, I had become an accepted presence. While on my solo I wrote a letter to myself. In the letter I revealed what I had learned and what it meant to realize my own strength and will in those few days of solitude. I gave the letter to my guide and asked him to send it to me in a year. I remember the day the letter came. At first I did not recognize the faded words on the envelope, but as soon as I glanced at the return address I knew that they were my own. I once again sought solitude. In a small corner of my familys flower garden I opened the letter and began telling. The first words I read were remember the Medicine Wheel.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Fantasys Integral Role In The Creation Of A Killer     Through out history seldom has an individual been able to hold a cityin fear. Most times people will just either ignore the individual, let the law of nature handle the situation, or call them wacko or crazy. But then there arethe extreme cases. On this end of the scale people whitethorn have extreme mentalproblems or very strong motives, so extreme or so strong that they captivate an accurate city or even nation. Jack the Ripper did it by killing and murderingfive prostitutes. In recent times it has been people like Charles Manson andthe Boston Strangler, who assaulted and murdered thirteen women keeping theentire city captivated in a claim of fear. Serial Killers... Fantasy plays avery important role in creating and or modeling a serial grampus and it is shownthrough remorse, uniform and weather or not they have or follow a trademarkedstyle. All of these elements combined spoil the fantasy portrayed by a serialkiller.     Pain, does a serial killer have or feel pain for their victims?Sometimes the killer may depending on the psychological state they are in. Butthen regarding the fact most serial killers grow up in violent households onepower say that the killer does not or even cant feel remorse because violenceis what they were brought up in and to believe is true so it is what they havebeen teach to believe. Or you could take the approach that the killerfeels they are being threatened by their victims so they had to be removed fromthe picture altogether. Or finally it competency be the killer is so mentallyunstable that they have very little to no consciences awareness of what they aredoing. But what if they do feel affliction? Can a serial killer feel sorrow? Oneresearcher says no. "The inner workings of the mind of a serial killer cannotgrasp the feeling of any kind of sorrow or remorse". Therefore a serial killeris hate manifested into a physica l state and may or may not have motives tokill.     Serial killers may be killing For many reasons weather it be forrevenge or whatsoever but one thing remains as a standard among killers you haveto be smart to stay alive. Once you have that intellect comes dodging fromthe law and your capture. One of the best cases of a extremely intelligentkiller was the case of the Zodiac Killer in California. His uniform was to killcouples parked in cars, by shooting through the window with a .
Fantasys Integral Role In The Creation Of A grampus whale     Through out history seldom has an individual been able to hold a cityin fear. Most times people will scarce either ignore the individual, let thepolice handle the situation, or call them wacko or crazy. But then there atomic number 18the extreme cases. On this end of the scale people may have extreme mentalproblems or very safe motives, so extreme or so strong that they captivate anentire city or even nation. Jack the Ripper did it by killing and murderingfive prostitutes. In recent times it has been people like Charles Manson andthe capital of Massachusetts Strangler, who assaulted and murdered thirteen women keeping theentire city captivated in a state of fear. Serial Killers... Fantasy plays avery important share in creating and or modeling a serial killer and it is shownthrough remorse, alike and last or not they have or follow a trademarkedstyle. All of these elements combined expose the f antasy portrayed by a serialkiller.     Pain, does a serial killer have or smelling pain for their victims?Sometimes the killer may depending on the psychological state they are in. Butthen regarding the fact most serial killers grow up in violent households onemight say that the killer does not or even cant feel remorse because violenceis what they were brought up in and to imagine is true so it is what they havebeen conditioned to believe. Or you could take the approach that the killerfeels they are being threatened by their victims so they had to be upstage fromthe picture altogether. Or finally it might be the killer is so mentallyunstable that they have very little to no consciences awareness of what they aredoing. But what if they do feel sorrow? Can a serial killer feel sorrow? Oneresearcher says no. "The inner whole shebang of the mind of a serial killer cannotgrasp the feeling of any kind of sorrow or remorse". Therefore a serial killeris hate manifested into a physical state and may or may not have motives tokill.     Serial killers may be killing For many reasons weather it be forrevenge or whatever but one thing remains as a standard among killers you haveto be smart to die hard alive. Once you have that intellect comes avoidance fromthe law and your capture. One of the best cases of a extremely intelligentkiller was the case of the Zodiac Killer in California. His uniform was to killcouples parked in cars, by shooting through the window with a .
Monday, May 27, 2019
At the end of an Early Years session, we expect the children to be sit down on the carpet for their parents to collect them. One of the children was finding it very difficult to co-operate, and continued to move around the classroom, walking and running, picking up toys and making noise. I asked the child to sit down but receive no response. I then asked again for her to sit down and began to move towards her in a manner that indicated I was likely to sit her down myself.At that point the child giggled and ran away from me quickly, shouting loudly and refusing to come to the carpet area I felt it was very important the child sat down, with no toys in her hand, and I was concerned other children would copy her behaviour. I felt embarrassed to be on a lower floor the childs control The child seemed to be enjoying this and I did not feel confident at all and immediately regretted trying to move towards her. til now I had done so because I felt I imperative all the children were read y quickly as we were running a little novel for the end of the session, and the class teacher had already gone to open the door to let the parents in . I believe I should have acted in a more adaptable manner. I could have considered an alternative way to encourage her to sit where she should be. In Deweys publication How We Think (1910) Dewey draws the readers attention to routine do and reflective action, where routine action is largely pre set guidelines, not giving consideration to somebody circumstances.Reflective action is considering the individual situation and adjusting as obligatory (1910). I should have reflected on the situation as it were happening. The child could have been quickly pacified with a small activity- perhaps helping me to tidy the books away whilst this is not common manage, it would have still achieved her quietly remaining on the carpet until her parent arrived. I needed to adjust the pre-set guidelines to the individual situation.Dewey also believe d we should draw on past experiences whenever possible (1910) and I will consider this in the case of this child. A small adaptation of the rules to meet her needs would be in everybodys best interests. Allowing the child to have an item or engage in a quiet activity at certain times could encourage a more positive response from her while she settles into the school environment. I will continue to keep a reflective journal so I am encouraged to think more independently and learn to become adaptable.I feel reflecting on experiences and learning from what happens and seeing the outcome when I put ideas into practice will help me to grow in confidence and become more effective Practitioner. It will prevent me from being becoming unable to develop individual responses to unique situations. It is imperative that we learn to reflect on our actions. If we dont, we will simply be Turned into low level operativeswhile remaining projection screen to large issues of the underlying purposes and results of schooling (Griffiths and Tann, Ripples in Reflection 1991100).
Sunday, May 26, 2019
For obvious reasons, H&S Toolbox talks have to address current legislation and topics covered in pertinent Approved Codes of Practice. Also, due to the practicalities of taking employees away from their normal activities, creases have to be relevant, concise and deliver results. It follows on that pointfore that planning and delivery in my profession is tell to successful training.PlanningRoles & ResponsibilitiesIn order to achieve a professional delivery, I willing discuss in advance with each learner their very(prenominal) needs from the course. Some learners will be young and apprehensive, while others whitethorn be more mature and overconfident. The course content must(prenominal) cater for this diversity. The course needs to address business interests whilst covering topical subjects within each field of learning. A robust lesson Plan, with special emphasis on practical skills will therefore be fundamental. Each training posing is divided into sections which discuss what is currently happening in industry (accident statistics), what legislation is currently in postal service to prevent these accidents, and what the learner must do to adhere to best practice.BoundariesProbably the greatest amount of effort is put into making sure a multitude of learners ar available at a precise time on a precise day. Business needs change daily and I must always have a contingency. (Fewer learners, different venue, different day ..) A range of material is prepared in advance (hand-outs, PowerPoint presentations and quizzes) to help get the nub across. Some courses require the use of the workshop and it is essential to ensure that the training needs fecal matter be accommodated in parallel with normal work activities. pitchRoles & ResponsibilitiesCourses must be interesting enough to stimulate interaction. A variety of training aids will be used to achieve this. Courses will be changed every 24 months to ensures learners do not have to endure the same dialogue, etc.Delivery will be focused and effective. Interaction is a predominate feature of my courses and helps to stimulate stem learning Hand-outs that require learners to fill in missing words or spot hazards are fundamental to most of my courses. These can be shame individually or in groups to begin with.BoundariesAttitude is rarely a problem in my current role. Often, younger learners do not have the necessary skills or experience to be blas in front of others, and older learners are quite happy to share their experiences from the real world. Money and resources for materials are accounted for in my annual budget. Actual costs (learners time away from work) is always agreed by the line managers. Current guidelines on training frequency construct added support to my causeAssessRoles & ResponsibilitiesMost of my courses use a multi-choice questionnaire for instant results. This omits the writing/spelling concerns that may blight an otherwise competent person you dont need to be ac ademically astute to be able to do the job safely. Some courses require more interaction than others. It is weighty therefore to keep precise notes on a learners contribution and ultimately, on their ability to comprehend the subject being taught.BoundariesMarking multi-choice questionnaires is straight-forward and fair. If marked within the group environment, it gives a further chance to discuss wrong answers Notes taken in the taught session can be used to consolidate marking criteria. On occasions, learners may pass a formal course test, but the teachers may have concerns about actual ability. This information may be used to develop excess training needs.EvaluateRoles & ResponsibilitiesFeed-back forms are considered invaluable in my company although they are not considered mandatory. Always allow time at the end of a session for them to be filled in. Oral feed-back from my groups is always useful. It is important not to put anyone under the spot light. Solicitous questioning oft en pays dividends. Sometimes doing a backstairs audit (to see if learners aredoing what they have been taught) is a practiced way to see if the course lesson has been absorbed. BoundariesIt is important to recognise that no matter how good the training material is, there may be a need to modify it to cater for different abilities. Each time the training material is modified, there is a supposition that it will appeal to, and cater for, a more focused audience.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
The case study entitled The Micromanager was written by Bronwyn Fryer, Jim Goodnight, Mark Goulston, Craig Chappelow and Michael Lawrie for the Harvard Business Review journal last September 2004.The fictional story was about a CEO of Retronics Corporation, George Latour. George believes that he is an exceptional leader and has a command to increase the companys benefit with a goal of excellence towards the softw atomic number 18-engineering firm. Instructed by the board chairman, George hired a new marketing director, Shelley Stern, who, according to the chairman, only postulate a bit of information in the softw atomic number 18-engineering business. He does his trump out to bring Shelly up to date.George has her sit in on proveer meetings, forced her to do client calls, and even has the finance office beg off the companys financial affairs on her. George has tendencies to be meticulous, interfering with Shellys work, suppressing her creativity and suggesting his own better i deas. George also gives blind comments like when he said Thanks, Shel. Youre the best although Shelly felt down that time when George repelled her creativity. Doing all this made Shelley unhappy and never seems to show interest. In truth, she sees Georges management manner as oppressive, making her awfully depressed. In the end, Shelly rebelled and acc use upd George as a micromanager, while leaving George taken aback and could never believe what he heard.Both sidetrackies, George and Shelly, have some problems in terms of flavour and character. As CEO of the company, George carries a lot of pressure on his shoulders that is why he tries his best to excel the demands of the firm since the company is not in a genuine shape. He overexerts himself by interfering with the work of his subordinates. Clearly, he lacks some sensitivity and trust to his underlings and makes the work done by doing it himself. George is uncomfort up to(p) with his job and thinks that the institutionalize could only point at him thats why he is afraid to accept radical ideas from his underlings.Shelly, on the other hand, is quite new to the business. Although she has the qualifications for the job, she still inescapably a lot to learn and needs to adjust spontaneously according to the demands of the firm and her boss. Shelly believes that she has safe qualities and gives overconfidence on her work. She also thinks that her ideas be excellent and needs to be praised not criticized, as done casually by George. As a newly hired employee, she is pressured to show her good qualities to her co-workers and leave a good impression as a marketing director. Shelly trusts herself and believes that she can stand on her own without the help or intervention of her superiors.According to the U.S. Army Handbook of 1973, there are three general types of leadership. They are (1) Authoritarian or tyrannical style (2) Participative or democratic style, and (3) Delegative or free reign style. Authori tarian or autocratic style is basically used when the boss tells his subordinates what he wants done and how he wants the job done without getting the advice or opinion of his subordinates. An appropriate condition to use this style is when all the information to solve the problem is provided, there is time pressure, and the subordinates are well motivated to accept hasty commands.Some narrow minded great deal think of this style as an excuse for yelling, using humiliating language, leading to threats and abuse of power. This is not the authoritarian style but sooner an abusive, unethical style called bossing people around. Authoritarian style is normally used on rare situations when necessary. Participative or democratic style of leadership is preferred if time is much operational and the leader wants to gain more commitment and motivation from the subordinates. This style includes the employees in on the decision making processes. However, knowledgeable and skillful employees s hould take part in the process and the leader affirms the final decision as a sign of authority.Using this style does not show weakness of the leader but rather a sign of strength and trust that the employees will respect. In delegative or free reign style, the boss allows the employees to make their own decision. This style is used when employees are able fully capable of analyzing the situation and can determine what needs to be done to solve a certain problem. Although the employees had the power to make decisions, the certificate of indebtedness and final decision always lie on the leader himself.For a good leader to become more effective he should be able to use all three styles depending on the situation and the forces involved between him and his subordinates. The leader should know when and how to adjust to meet the demands of the firm as well as to maintain a good image to his employees. As for George Latour, he should improve on becoming a leader by listening more to deve lop more productive ideas and to have a mutual relationship to his followers. He should not concentrate himself on how his employee sees him but focus on maximizing the available resources to have better and productive planning.The bountifulgest problem for Shelly and George would be the lack of efficient communication. Most of the problems and conflicts that occur in a firm or organization are the direct result failure to communicate and misunderstanding. Faulty communication leads to confusion and can cause good plans to be unsuccessful. Communication is said to be the interchange of information or ideas from a sender to a receiver. (Communication and Leadership) Efficient communication happens if the receiver comprehends the information that the sender wanted to address. Open mindedness also plays a big part in communication. It sharpens the ability of the receiver to understand what the sender is saying thus making the communication process more efficient.Good communication is also serious to attain especially when there are some barriers that prevent the sender and receiver to understand each other. Some of these said barriers of communication are culture, beliefs, noise, personal and mental stresses, past experiences, and environmental factors such as bright lights, unnatural sights, unattractive person or any stimuli that can cause distraction. (Communication and Leadership)For a good communication process to happen, both parties should overcome these barriers to have a more productive relationship with each other. In the case of George and Shelly, they must relieve themselves of the stresses that they communicate so that they can communicate effectively. Shelly should exert herself on listening to suggestions and combining it with her creative ideas while George must also try to become more raw(a) and to give more trust to his employees.ReferencesBronwyn Fryer, J. G. (Sep 2004). The Micromanager. Harvard Business Review 8p, 2c, 4bw , p31-40, 8p, 2 c, 4bw.Communication and Leadership. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2007, from The Skagit Watershed Council Website http//www.skagitwatershed.org/donclark/leader/leadcom.htmlLeadership Styles. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2007, from The Skagit Watershed Council Website http//www.skagitwatershed.org/donclark/leader/leadstl.htmlUnited States Army Handbook. (1973).
Friday, May 24, 2019
In William Gildings churchman of the Flies and Corm McCarthy solely the Pretty Horses, the harassers take over experiences with death and are victims of mature circumstance which lead them to ultimate moral reconciliation. death is not a topic to be taken lightly, which the characters of Lord of the Flies by William Gilding discover, Stranded, adult-less, on a deserted Island, the boys In the novel have a growing subconscious fear of a beast on the Island.When one character, Simon, discovers that the beast is no tailorg but the darkness within each of them, he races to tell the group and is unfortunately mistaken for the beast. The boys lump upon Simon, beating him with sticks and ultimately forcing him off a cliff his death. The boys discover they have the power to kill upon Simonys death, cause them to reassess their strengths and abilities as a group of savages. Similarly, All the Pretty Horses by Corm McCarthy touches upon death and the forced self- assessment It provokes In a character.Protagonist John Grady Cole pop offs In a physical fight while spending time at a penitentiary In Mexico. In an effort to save himself, Cole stabs his offender in the heart and, the chiselers knife clattered on the floor. From the red boutonnire blossoming on the left pocket of his the cochlear blue ark shirt there spurted a thin fan of bright arterial blood. He dropped to his knees and pitched forward dead into the arms of his enemy (McCarthy 201). Cole, only sixteen years old, is forced to reassess his strength and demand abilities in order to survive this fight.His exposure to death, much like that of the characters of Lord of the Flies, signifies a new stage in life, a new outlook, and a recapitulation of how things are handled and how one reacts to certain things. Both Gilding and McCarthy utilize death as a tool to force characters to reassess their motives, strengths, and moieties even sanity. Gildings Lord of the Flies also stresses the abandonment of Innocen ce through experience. By the novels close, protagonist Ralph has seen two friends die, the rest descend into savagery, and himself capable of going insane, experiencing pain, and inflicting pain unto others.When the boys are in conclusion rescued by chance from the Island, Ralph wept for the end of Innocence, the darkness of mans heart, and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Plugs (Gilding 202). Rallys, and the other characters, exposure to savagery and constituent with innocence give not only homeless but the reader a sense of moral reconciliation. Ralph realizes that things and weeps for his inability to be blind to his surroundings and his inability to control them. He learns that although one can try to make the best of a situation and make every effort to maintain control and order, things do not always go as planned.Likewise, McCarthy All the Pretty Horses teaches its protagonist, John Grady Cole, the same lesson. Cole Journeys to Mexico in search of th e glorified cowboy life some(prenominal) tried to get a hold of at the time, and returns home having lost a close friend, killed another human being, and heartbroken at being uneffective to be with the girl he loved. Upon his return, Cole does not have the innocence he set out with because his experiences and the circumstances under which they occurred have opened his eyes.He is do to reconsider what he values, and settles with himself what his morals are, and what he believes in and stands for. All the Pretty Horses and Lord of the Flies force their characters and readers to learn a lesson, to reconcile their morals and values, and get a taste of extreme experience and circumstance. Experiencing the death of a friend and being forced to act maturely due to resistance led characters in William Gildings Lord of the Flies and Corm McCarthy All the Pretty Horses to self reassessment and moral understanding.While often times coming to this point includes a happy close, the novels dis play a different angle, a lesson learned without the fairytale ending the reader is so much hoping for. Moral reconciliation and the ability to assess oneself comes with maturity, and the authors of Lord of the Flies and All the Pretty Horses prove that sometimes obtaining this maturity comes at a heavy and painful cost in parting with ones innocence.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
For more than details on the content of report and ordering information please visithttp//www.aarkstore.com/reports/Global-Money-Transfer-Remittances-Market-Report-2012-Edition-70275.htmlRemittances are an important opening of income for households, particularly in developing countries. Remittances are gaining importance in the economic planning of all major developing economies of the world. With globalization and growing socio-political activities, more and more people from underdeveloped or developing economies are working outside the countries of their origin. Remittances are being considered as an important financial resource for development as well as a social change by financial planners in developing economies. The worldwide influx and outflow of remittances is rising constantly since historic several(prenominal) years with the exception of 2009, which was characterized by global economic slowdown.The developing nations which include both low-income and middle income count ries account for the majority of the global remittance inflow with majority contribution from India, China, Mexico and Philippines, due to their large emigrant population. The largest source of remittance flow to developing regions is high income countries including the US and Western Europe, with the GCC countries fast developing as an important source.The companies operating in the global remittance market are faced with strong competition with few large competitors and numerous small and receding competitors. The leading money transfer organization like Western Union, Money Gram, Euronet, and other independent players compete on the basis of technology, price and quality of dish up offered to remitters.The report analyzes the global remittances market with focus on India, China, Mexico and Philippines. The key trends observed within the market include exchange rate, fluctuating remittance cost, regional employment or unemployment affecting remittances, number of RSPs and cost variation across India and China and dominance of cash prices over the remittance market. The global remittance market faces several challenges which include the taxes which are imposed by the government on remittances and numerous legal and regulatory hurdles. The major factors which will contribute in the growth of the manufacture include growing international migration, rising employment rate and global economic growth.By combining SPSS Inc.s data integration and analysis capabilities with our applicable findings, we have predicted the future growth of the industry. We employed various significant variables that have an impact on this industry and created regression models with SPSS Base to determine the future thrill of the industry. Before deploying the regression model, the relationship between several independent or predictor variables and the dependent variable was analyzed using standard SPSS output, including charts, tables and tests.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
This paper deals with band ferocity in the city of dinero since the beginning of time. It takes a deep look into the history of pelf gangs and how they interact today. as well as the past problems the City of Chicago made when dealing with gangs and the problems that gangs today have and how Chicago has the worst gang problem in the country. Also how gangs have turned themselves into big, and lucrative enterprises most known for money. Also stated be possible solutions to complete or reduce violence of the gangs that all depress off with teaching the young kids about gangs and gang prevention.Chicago Gangs, Then and Now with Solutions Jimi Hendrix once said Every city in the world of all time has a gang, a street gang, or the so- called outcasts. Every city deals with gangs but some cities are worse off than others. Chicago is infamous for gang violence and problems dealing with gangs. For some getting to school in the Chicago land area can even be a matter of life and decea se because of the gangs and their violent ways (Belluck, 2000). Throughout history gang violence infested the city of Chicago, and it continues to create problems today hopefully solutions planned by the city can layover the violence.Race shaped Chicago gang history. African Americans were crowded into to the south side Black Belt (A brief outline of Chicagos gang history, para 2). As the First World War ended, blacks came back to Chicago and fights broke out to find jobs. The Democratic Party led by mayor Richard J. Daley decided to keep segregating the city (Brief outline). The blacks were separated by an expressway and an 18 story housing project. Separating races caused violence to sky rocket. The segregated areas proved more nationalist for their area and defended it to the core.Gang leaders were constantly thrown into jail so they had to find ways to keep a lucrative business. The Chicago Police segment declared war on gangs in the 1960s and the prisons soon became overpop ulated (Brief outline). Gangs reorganized and many combined their gangs into one bigger enterprise. Gangs were mostly run from prisons during the 1970s and on (Brief outline) therefore one could not escape the gangs. Gangs shaped Chicago early on. Gentrification is displacing gangs and causing turf wars. Gentrification and the tearing down of public housing in Chicago left many gangs homeless (Brief outline).Due to this, gangs battle over land and housing, known as turf wars. The violence rises, along with the number of deaths. at that placefore legal philosophy attempt to limit the gangs, but that also leads to fighting and violence with police. The whole cycle involves violence and is vicious. Chicago has the biggest gang problem in the country (Thomas & Bass, 2009). There are more gang members per citizen in Chicago than anywhere else in the country (Thomas, 2009, para 4). The average Chicago gang leader is 43, convicted of murder and lives in the suburbs.That leader on many occ asions directs his gang from jail (Main, 2006) and 95 percent of inmates in the Cook County Jail are gang members (Thomas, 2009). Gangs are everywhere today just like they use to be. The high number of gangs causes violence and deaths to rise in Chicago. Gangs have morphed from social organizations into full-fledged criminal enterprises (Thomas, 2009, para 5). Gangs are highly sophisticated and more dangerous then ever. The number one reason to join a gang is money and 95 percent of gangs usefulness comes from drug dealing (Thomas, 2009).Gangs do not worry about others and civilians, but rather money and their respective gang. Dealing with gangs is very dangerous. Even coming into contact with gangs can be dangerous. There are a wide variety of ethnicities and root words of gangs. Gangs can not be attributed to one ethnic or cultural group (Decker, 2009, pg 404). The high number of gangs again leads to turf wars because of a need for land and housing. Due to all of this violence police can not stop gangs all people mustiness contribute to the effort (Thomas, 2009). Gangs can not be stopped but reducing the violence can be done.It will assume Chicagoans participation and officers doing their job but it will make gangs less apparent in the city. Gang prevention must start with kids. The young people must be taught about gangs and the consequences of them since they are the future. They need to be taught the right way so they will not become involved with gangs and eventually gangs will slip away out. Schools should strain after school and summer jobs programs in order to get kids off the street after school and learning. Schools also should teach about gangs and offer drug prevention programs (Main, 2006).Kids are the key to stopping gangs and if taught correctly it can happen. Going after leaders of gangs is beneficial. Superintendent Jody Weis put in an ordinance saying, That if gangs quicken to violence, police will go after their leaders (Tarm, 20 10). Gang leaders will be held accountable for all the actions of their members. It is likely that a leader faculty become infuriated after going to jail so many clock for actions of his gang members that he might leave the gang. If this happens a couple of times the gang might diminish or vanish completely. This is one possible way to stop gangs.Controlling hot spots is key in stopping gangs. An ordinance was passed saying that police can arrest suspected members of a gang if they dont leave and area an officer tells them to (Belluck, 2000). A like ordinance was passed that allows officers to tell people to remove themselves from an area and to stay eye distance away (Johnson, 2000). This again allows officers to watch hot spots and can smash gangs business in an area causing them to lose money. It also allows gang members to keep being jailed and off of the streets for a period of time so they can not commit crimes or violence.This will limit gangs enterprises. Gang violence i nfests the city of Chicago but solutions can stop the violence. Chicago has the worst gang problem in the country but with the help of police and members of society it can be lowered. Kids must be taught from a young age about gangs and ordinances that make it hard for gangs to conduct business must be passed. Gangs can be stopped but it is no soft task. Chicagoans will have to work very hard but gangs can become lesser of a problem or maybe even disused one day.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Human nature refers to the general psychological characteristics, feelings, and behavioral traits of humankind, regarded as shared by all humans. F. Scott Fitzgerald with the use of selection of detail, selective diction, and imagery, portrays both move and bona fide aspects of human nature. Death brings denial, memories, remorse, and perspective. To incision Carraway, who is utterly incredulous and lachrymose over Gatsbys death, the passing-away of a dear friend is a period of reflection.Denial is the approximately prominent psychological aspect following champions death. Gatsbys house was still empty when I left. Fitzgerald implies that Nick is waiting upon Gatsbys cave in the return to normalcy. But the period of stagnation lingers and Nick continues to reminisce on the past. Fitzgerald invokes imagery by appealing to the five senses. Nick is trying to relive the jibe of Gatsbys infamous house parties by spending his Saturday nights in New York. The gleaming, dazzling parti es draw out the visuals of a celebratory scene. The music and the laughter, faint and aeonian excites the aural senses and characterizes the mood of the party. Nick begins to notice the most dismissive and discreet details.He acknowledges the length of the Gatsbys unmanaged lawn as compared to his, in which he posed fiddling to no interest prior to the death. Juxtaposing his brief observation is one far more conspicuous. One of the taxi drivers in the village never took a come along fast the entrance gate without stopping for a minute and pointing insideperhaps he had made a story about it all his own. Nick takes to mind the change in attitude and persona of those who were acquaintances of Gatsby. His death brings a cessation to lively parties and expansive gifts. Therefore, they who once lauded and idolized Gatsby, act as if one has never heard of him.The cruel and selfish face of human nature proves to be nothing less than pathetic. Nick concludes Gatsbys story by gainful at tention to the green light and reminiscing Gatsbys extraordinary spirit and pursuit to come as far as he did. Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic coming(prenominal) that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but thats no matter to-morrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms fartherso we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. Gatsbys spirit and passion will continue on in those who remember him most.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Exploring the Values and Principles of materialisation Work offspring work, enables, helps, encourages and celebrates vernal massess achievements and efforts. It walks beside a early days individual on their journey to transition to the adult humans. It does not sound out but rather provides an open ended support at times and in places where no opposite service can. Professor Ted Milburn, CBE President YMCA Scotland Youth work is a process of engaging and building relationships with newfangled commonwealth and providing a safe, secure and fun environment where tender pack feel supported and valued.Young bulk be central to the formulatening and delivery of jejuneness work as it responds to youthfulness issues. This offers a spirit socket of opportunities and programmes that reflect the umteen different requirements such as age difference, gender, special ask and race modify young multitude to fulfil their potential. The purpose of youth work is well defined in the Youth Work Manifesto 2011, and is as follows build self-esteem and self-confidence develop the ability to manage someoneal and mixer relationships get learning and develop new skills encourage commanding group atmospheres build the dexterity of young plurality to consider risk, make reasoned decisions and take control of their lives develop a world realize which widens horizons and invites social commitment build the qualification of young people to influence local and topic decision makers The values and principles that underpin youth work are Young people choose to act The young person takes part voluntarily. She/he chooses to be involved, not least because they want to relax, meet friends and fox fun.The young person decides whether to engage or to walk a representation. The work must build from where young people are Youth Work operates on young peoples experience individualised and unpaid territory within both their geographic and interest communiti es. The young persons biography draw is respected and forms the basis for shaping the agenda in negotiation with peers and youth workers. Youth Work recognises the young person as a partner in a learning process It complements formal education, promoting young people access to learning opportunities which enable them to fulfil their potential.Youth Work safeguards the welfare of young people It provides young people with a safe environment in which to explore their values, beliefs, ideas and issues. Youth Work treats young people with respect It values each individual and their differences, and promoting the acceptance and understanding of others, whilst challenging oppressive behaviour and ideas. Youth Work is concerned with facilitating and empowering the voice of young people It encourages and enables young people to influence the environment in which they live.Youth Work respects and values individual differences It supports and strengthens young peoples belief in themselves, and their message to grow and to flip with a supportive group environment. Youth Work is underpinned by the principles of equity, assortment and interdependence Effective Communication in Youth Work We all use manner of speaking to communicate, to communicatoryize ourselves, to get our ideas across, and to connect with the person to whom we are speaking. When a relationship is working, the act of communicating seems to flow comparatively effortlessly.When a relationship is deteriorating, the act of communicating can be as frustrating as arise a hill of sand. Chip Rose, attorney and mediator The act of communicating involves verbal and nonverbal components. The verbal component refers to the content of our centre the choice and arrangement of our talking to. The nonverbal component refers to the message we send through our body language. Some of the methods used to communicate are Non Verbal CommunicationVerbal Communication Facial Expression (e. g. frown) confabulation Body Posture Presentation Hand Gestures Tone of voice Pictorial representations Written word appearing (e. g. untidiness) Pacing and volume of voice Exchanging ideas and thoughts verbally with others is the most common form of intercourse. However, there can be barriers with this, especially within a youth work setting. Some of these barriers are Language It is pregnant not to use overly-formal language and jargon, which young people skill not understand. Also be aware of the language young people might use, i. e. slang. Stereotypes and generalizationsYouth workers must be sensitive to the complexities of certain situations and should be open to different opinions and views and not see the world as black and white. Jumping to conclusions Youth workers should not assume to come the reasons tail assembly events. It is important to have all the information. Dysfunctional responses Ignoring or not responding to a comment or question quickly undermines effective communication w ith a young person. Also, responding with an irrelevant comment or interrupting others season they are speaking also creates a poor environment.Lacking Confidence Whether it is the youth worker or young person, lacking confidence can be a major barrier to effective communication. Shyness, difficulty be assertive, or lack of self-worth can hinder your ability to make your needs and opinions known to others nonverbal Cues Nonverbal cues can block verbal communication. The wrong facial expressions or body language from a youth worker might purge off a young person from opening up or continuing a conversation. Not ListeningNot listening constitutes a major barrier in verbal communication. If a young person thinks that you are not listening then they will not speak with you. horror Inconsistency can also blocks verbal communication. If you say one thing and then later change your stance, it might confuse or frustrate a young person. Verbal communication barriers can consecrate a ser ious strain on relationships that ultimately need to be collaborative in narrate to most effectively meet the needs of our young people.Use of these communication errors results in increased emotional distancing betwixt youth worker and young person and can result in conflict and a blackball environment for everyone involved. Albert Mehrabian, a US Educational Psychologist, has developed a famous formula for how verbal communication works. The formula is 7% of meaning is in the words that are spoken. 38% of meaning is in the way that the words are said. 55% of meaning is in facial expression and body language. The key message here is simple Its not what you say, its the way that you say it. Nonverbal Communication tableGesture Common Interpretation blur Twirling Flirting, nervous, uncertainty, incompetence Placing your hand in front of your mouth Insecurity, uncertainty Rubbing your arm or subdivision Nervous, uncertainty Slumped posture Cant be bothered, low self-esteem , boredom, alienation Open palms Open, honest Palms subject Serious, domination Clenched fist Angry, frustrated, aggression Holding hands behind back Hiding something, en garde Wringing hands Nervousness, anxious Arms folded over chest Annoyed, bored, uninterested, low self-esteem Too little eye contact Shy, dishonest, nervous, no confidenceGesture Common Interpretation When exaggerated Forward Lean Interested, concern, spirit Troubled Direct eye contact Interested Aggressive Unique dress/hairstyle Confident, creative guardianship seeking, confused Upright posture Confident Feeling uneasy Handshake Friendly Intrusive, eccentric, aggressiveAn assertive person has the ability to express the needs, wants and emotions in a controlled manner without violating the rights of others or being aggressive. Characteristics of an assertive person might include Knowledge of their own rights Ability to initiate and sustain comfortable relationships with a variety of people Willingness to compromise Ability to discuss things in a controlled manner The difference among an assertive person and an aggressive person are as follows Assertive =Win, win Expresses feelings and thoughts honestly and appropriately Shows respect for themselves and others Considers the rights and needs of others Can effectively influence, listen and negotiate so others co-operate willingly Aggressive = winner, loser Expresses feelings and thoughts in a way which violates the rights of others Shows disrespect for themselves and others Puts own needs above others and denies people choice Can negatively influence, not listen and not negotiate and make others do what they dont want to do Puts own needs above others and denies people choice Interpersonal skills are the skills used when interacting with other people. In a challenging situation, effective interpersonal skills are essential. In a youth work setting, some of the skills a worker should have are An ability to rea d other people and build rapport existence able to ask useful questions You can more easily influence people You can get across conflict and challenging situations in constructive ways Show understanding With good interpersonal skills communication and relationships between young people and workers are enhanced. Building Relationships in Youth Work The flexibility and skills of youth work staff enable them to get trust from young people in m whatsoever instances for the beginning(a) time that a young person has been able to trust an adult. I never cease to be amazed at how the youth work process can transform some of our most unguarded young people and change their view of self and society in such a positive fashion. Alex Linkston, CBE, Princes Trust Volunteer, retired CEO West Lothian Council and Chair of YouthLink Scotland. It is important to promote positive relationships with young people in youth work to Provide learning and encourage success Ensure everyone is given a voice and feels heard Empower those with conflict to resolve it for themselves Preserve a sense of belonging and create positivity Develop and maintain mutual respect Build and repair relationships Develop world view and broaden horizons Build social skills and provide Life Skills Five qualities, which constitute a positive personal relationship, are Trust Mutual respect Communication Understanding Familiarity/Common groundFive qualities, which constitute positive youth work relationships, are Trust Approachable Non judgemental Good listener/empowering Respect So what are the differences between a personal relationship and a youth work relationship? Even though the words used above to describe the two different types of relationships tend to be different they are preferably similar in that they involve helpfulness and working together. In a professional relationship you oft motivated by a task/goal (i. e. the young persons learning, etc. ) that you are working t ogether to complete and achieve. In a personal relationship the ultimate goal is comfort and building true trust.There are two main themes that emerge with some regularity when reading close to relationships in youth work. These themes detail why positive relationships in youth work are important and are stated below Education for relationship The ability to develop good and satisfying interpersonal relationships is seen as the main, or a major reason for fostering learning. This has been one of the main themes lying behind many informal educators concern with social education. Education through relationship Our relationships are a aboriginal source of learning. By paying attention to the nature of the relationship between educators and learners, it is argues, we can make a significant difference.In particular, the quality of the relationship deeply influences the hopefulness required to remain curious and open to new experiences, and the capacity to see connections and discover meanings (Salzberger-Whittenberg et al. 1983 ix). Introduction to Planning and Evaluating Youth Work Plan (Needs & Aims) give away why the youth work group/programme is needed by the young person and/or the community evince who has identified the need for the group. (I. e. young person/Social work/ groups/partner organisations) Describe what the project is close in broad terms. State what the group is aiming to achieve. The need for a group can be identified through Discussions Formal consultation Social Network surveys Partnership meetings Community lead charge groups Statistics Government Policies Outline (Objectives/Implementations) List the objectives (specific aims) of the group and make a series of actions that will be put in place to ensure each of the stated objectives is achieved Describe how the objectives will be carried out/delivered How many beneficiaries/Age group/gender List who will benefit from the group (i. e. young person/social work/parents) List any information about the target group Resources (Funding, staff, etc. ) List any resources required such as money, staffing requirements, equipment, area, time and transport, etc. Partners Involved List any other agencies/partners that whitethorn be involved with the group/project such as police/SW/school/NHS mean Experiences & Outcomes Describe how the group relates to the CfE capacities (Confident Individuals, Responsible Citizens, Successful Learners and Effective Contributors) Highlight the importance of the quality and nature of the participants experiences Describe the outcome of the group (i. e. what is to be achieved) Assess the progress in the learning plan and look at next steps Intended Impact (Data Definitions) Describe the purpose/point of the group. Describe how the group will have a positive effect on the all-round development and life chances of the young people involved Evaluation State how the group will be evaluated (i. e. participant feedback)
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Each human is born into differing sets of cultural and sociological deal that make each individual differ from one an different in various ways. Culture would be split upified as the moral patterns, knowledge, beliefs, customs, and whatever other habits man can and bequeath create in a monastic order. This Culture tincts each individual passively, or unintentionally, but yet very effectively. Corresponding to this would be the community that an individual is born into. Differing cultures create Societies societies be made up of cultural relations with others of the equivalent and agreeing culture.Cultures argon separated out into fond classes naturally because of major differences in cultural habits, beliefs, customs, etc. neighborly classes atomic number 18 differing cultures cultures that cannot easily coincide. A person might be born into the American culture, usually referred to as western culture, and thus he would be immediately different from those of an eastern cu lture, verbalise those of Iraq or Iran. The differing cultures are obviously based on the differing base of beliefs, the different customs, habits, moral standards, and oft, much to a greater extentThen there are sociological differences that we refer to as kindly class. While there is much of the western culture throughout the world, there are even widely differing cultures within the culture itself. These are what form hunting lodge and mixer classes. While there is one culture on the east sloping trough of the United States, you lead find that the culture on the west coast is completely separate and distinct. nonpareil of the more distinct examples that can be given is of those from the confederation versus those from elsewhere in the United States. disport Article Sociology TestBecause of the culture that children are born into, they are immediately immersed in a society that would demand respect and modesty in everyday living. It can be noted that the cultural standard in the southern United States is made up of higher moral standards than other states. Morals are one of the factors that make a culture differ from another. Just by sheer consequence, this culture creates a society that is considerably higher than those surrounding. In history it can be noted that custody from the south tended to be more upper class citizens having those of a differing culture under them as working class individuals.African Americans are from a differing culture, which in turn makes the society that they create clash with the society of other cultures. You will find umpteen different social classes that are together in one culture. For instance, post horse Gates would be part of a social class that some maturateer from Iowa would not be able to relate to. Generally there are 4 major social classes. These would be the speed Class (a small percentage), the Middle Class, the Working Class (constituting of most people), and the overturn Class.As well as any avera ge person from the rural town life would not be of the same social class as the president of the United States. A person can be born into a certain social class, but they can also work to attain a higher social class from the point in which they have begun. For the ease of consideration we will chose someone from rural farm country in either Illinois or Iowa These people are born to their parents into the working class and or lower class that they are part of. There have been people that have risen from the Lower Class up to the position of President, like our current president Mr. Barak Obama.Through natural means, and providential batch he was able to get an education and work his way up through the classes, and after many another(prenominal) years of work, sits as the current President. Education is a part of each individuals social class. One of the major factors that separate the Working Class from the Middle Class is their education. People that have interpreted the time, mo ney and energy to get an education and secure a degree or certificate in some specific area, are of a higher class and social status than those that are dependable working to provide for themselves in a workforce where no degree is needed.Culture is similar to affectionate class in that each individual is born into them without any choice, and that they are passively trained to be part of that class. But, a culture is the influence of certain standards, morals, habits, and such that will influence the person, whereas a society is only made up of relationships and certain goals and objectives. By joining together into a social class, the society can achieve what they would not be able to on an individual basis.The same is true for a culture, but to a lesser degree because there are many more cultures than there are social classes. Another term that can be used to describe culture would be well-educated behavior patterns. In conclusion, there are many cultures and many social stand ards throughout the world that affect every person either in a negative or a positive way. all individual has the influence of their culture and social class on them, to the point that they make distinctions about whom they will associate with and who they are able to have deep or shallow relationships.These are some of the factors that will limit the amount of people that a person is able to marry. The person under consideration moldiness be of a certain culture, in most cases, as well as be of an make up or greater social class. In my opinion, it is the wide distances between these social classes and foreign cultures that cause the many clashes in civilization, causing war and riots among lower people. If people were able to over-come these Sociological differences, then all men would be able to live more peaceably together.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Position musical theme PepsiCos Restaurants Pepsi Cos Restaurants is a Harvard Business School trip which states PepsiCos large organization, its structure, its acquisitions and vigilance approach. It also covers two companies, Carts of Colorado (COC) and California Pizza Kitchen (CPK) which are move from PepsiCo in 1991 to buy. In this position paper PepsiCos acquiring strategy and focusing approach ordain be evaluated to examine strengths and weaknesses of acquiring these two companies and possible solutions of other strategies. It leave be also serve whether it is a successful company in restaurant business.Pepsis acquiring strategy is diversified. First, it merged with Frito-Lay in 1965 and named PepsiCo. The upshot states the belief of Kendall that snack chips went well with soda. It was a product-extension merger. These two companies were selling different save cogitate products in the same market. Snack provenders and soft befuddles are link. With the help of es tablished distri plainlyion network and mark recognition the merge resulted higher growth and economies of scale. This synergy was the basis of further developments. After that PepsiCo. acquired restaurant chains, which was the ternary fragment for the company.You evoke read also Classifications of RestaurantsPepsiCo made market-extension and also product-extension with this purchase. It acquired the largest chains equivalent Pizza Hut, greaser Bell at late 70s and KFC in 1986. (Exhibit 1) With their economies of scale, it created market access for its own products and the restaurants could correct follow reduction and represent efficiency with the growth of PepsiCo through soft befuddles and also similar purchases. (PepsiCo nutriment Systems) Additionally, the acquirements of KFC with its franchises (Exhibit 5) was important because it helped PepsiCo to be internationally powerful.For this purpose, they used also a different strategy for their snack food fragment and ac quired Smith Crisps, Ltd from United Kingdom which was its competitor for European market. (horizontal acquisition) Besides, PepsiCo purchased supplier companies desire bottling subsidiaries as regardant(postnominal) integration (instruments of standard-cycle approach like PepsiCo forage Systems, apostrophize efficiency is really important ) and also conglobation like Wilson Sporting Goods, but they sold what they acquired when the parts are not greater than the whole. PepsiCo has decentralized management approach.Ein truth decision didnt taken by take management. The responsibility for authority and decision making is distributed. Pepsi technical-grade which included Michael Jackson with a 5$ million record fee was told CEO only a few hours before the mystify. Moreover, Kendall encouraged managers to take risks and stated If you go through your career and never gravel a mistake, youve never tried anything worthwhile and the president of Pizza Hut, Steve Reinemund mentio ned that Calloway, the follower CEO after Kendall, had never told him what to do.These are typical examples for decentralization, but it also shows us that there is a tradition at PepsiCo, the trespass management showed their managers their trust and tried to challenge their thought process. This is the result of PepsiCo investment on them. Calloways result for outstanding performance was the three Ps people, people, people. Such decision devoters should be experienced. real their two phase system was really successful because it let successful managers to promote another divisions, contend positions or different functional areas.Most of the top management which keister be seen from organization chart (Exhibit 2) had participated at all levels of PepsiCo with different assignments, so they were generalists and great managers with different experiences. Their management approach can be expound as Calloway states We take eagles and teach them to fly in formation. Carts of Col orado and California Pizza Kitchen were two companies that PepsiCo. were provoke to acquire. The advantages and disadvantages of such acquisitions entrust be considered separately.But first of all, we have to consider what was the strategy of PepsiCo for the future and what PepsiCo has experienced. According to strategicalal planners of the company debauched service restaurants would re primary(prenominal) the largest segment over the following decade. Based on their analyses, libertine service, casual dining and take out segments would be attractive. On the other hand, PepsiCo. invested to casual dining like Pizza Hut Cafe and experienced that their know-how for this segment is low. (Reinemund We needed people to come in and combust the mold of our thinking.We knew enough to know what we didnt) Additionally, Salsa Rio Grill which is also an investment for casual dining was a failure, but it has also mentioned it could be successful with a different setting. These are aspects that we have to think whether to acquire CPK. The boldness also mentions that PepsiCo. needed non-traditional program to sum up points of distribution. That can be achieved with carts. The company also purchased carts from COC because they saw a potential future that the location of sales was really important. If COC is acquired, than PepsiCo ould acquire skills or technologies more quickly or at lower hail than they could be built in-house. This can be seen as a strength, tho COCs carts wouldnt cover the core competence of PepsiCO, therefore its acquisition could be not cost efficient. There is also an opportunity of first mover with the know-how of COC PepsiCo could achieve the most efficient mobile storesi, mogul be also accommodate some strategies for automats. The threat was that COC has a centralized organization, because of adaptation problems whole tolerate could be a failure. Acquisition of CPK has strengths according to its operating segment of casual dining.The we akness could be because of its cost comparing to its benefit. Strategic planners saw casual dining segment a growth market and with its know-how they would dissipate their market. Its threat is centralized structure of CPK. They failed with Pizza Hut Cafe and Salsa Rio Grill and it could also find out with CPK if they mount their quick service strategies. According my point of view PepsiCo should not acquire CPK because PepsiCo. s tradition is in truth powerful and they want to adopt their strategies to CPK, but added value and core competence of this companies is its centralized structure.If they act so, they result fail, instead of acquiring synergy. Additionally, the economies of scale CPK is also small which would not add value to its soft drink segment, the acquirement of other restaurant chains was also beneficial for grade awareness and reputation, this wouldnt feel for CPK. They would acquire it for know-how of this company, but the company is not public and centralize d, everything will depend on cofounders of CPK, this a very big risk if we compare benefits and its cost.On the other hand, PepsiCo could acquire COC, but they could provoke a technology use up with such a company. In such a contract the threat is the benefit, the synergy with experience of PepsiCo and know-how of COC can be extraordinary. If COC shares the results to other competitors, that wouldnt be a one sided gain, so comparing with its cost, it would be a lot better to acquire it because built-in of such department would be also very costly. As a result, I want also add my comments about the success status of Pepsi in restaurant business. I believe, it is successful.Although its history is short comparing with soft drink segment, its revenue is greater than soft drink segment and this is a success, PepsiCo differentiated its products, it made a great purchase system for cost effectiveness, but it had to add-on its profitability according to 1991 data. Although it covered 36 % of PepsiCo sales, but operating profit was 29% and as we knew from case, PepsiCo of import strategy was investing to where it believed it could achieve the highest returns. (Exhibit 4) Reference http//www. mckinseyquarterly. com/The_five_types_of_successful_acquisitions_2635 PepsiCos Restaurants Harvard Business School stripPosition Paper Pepsicos RestaurantsPosition Paper PepsiCos Restaurants Pepsi Cos Restaurants is a Harvard Business School Case which states PepsiCos large organization, its structure, its acquisitions and management approach. It also covers two companies, Carts of Colorado (COC) and California Pizza Kitchen (CPK) which are engage from PepsiCo in 1991 to buy. In this position paper PepsiCos acquiring strategy and management approach will be evaluated to examine strengths and weaknesses of acquiring these two companies and possible solutions of other strategies. It will be also equal whether it is a successful company in restaurant business.Pepsis acquiring s trategy is diversified. First, it merged with Frito-Lay in 1965 and named PepsiCo. The case states the belief of Kendall that snack chips went well with soda. It was a product-extension merger. These two companies were selling different but related products in the same market. Snack foods and soft drinks are related. With the help of established distribution network and brand recognition the merge resulted higher growth and economies of scale. This synergy was the basis of further developments. After that PepsiCo. acquired restaurant chains, which was the tercet segment for the company.You can read also Classifications of RestaurantsPepsiCo made market-extension and also product-extension with this purchase. It acquired the largest chains like Pizza Hut, taco Bell at late 70s and KFC in 1986. (Exhibit 1) With their economies of scale, it created market access for its own products and the restaurants could make cost reduction and cost efficiency with the growth of PepsiCo through soft drinks and also similar purchases. (PepsiCo Food Systems) Additionally, the acquirements of KFC with its franchises (Exhibit 5) was important because it helped PepsiCo to be internationally powerful.For this purpose, they used also a different strategy for their snack food segment and acquired Smith Crisps, Ltd from United Kingdom which was its competitor for European market. (horizontal acquisition) Besides, PepsiCo purchased supplier companies like bottling subsidiaries as slow-witted integration (instruments of standard-cycle approach like PepsiCo Food Systems, cost efficiency is very important ) and also conglomeration like Wilson Sporting Goods, but they sold what they acquired when the parts are not greater than the whole. PepsiCo has decentralized management approach.Every decision didnt taken by top management. The responsibility for authority and decision making is distributed. Pepsi commercial which included Michael Jackson with a 5$ million record fee was told CEO o nly a few hours before the contract. Moreover, Kendall encouraged managers to take risks and stated If you go through your career and never make a mistake, youve never tried anything worthwhile and the president of Pizza Hut, Steve Reinemund mentioned that Calloway, the follower CEO after Kendall, had never told him what to do.These are typical examples for decentralization, but it also shows us that there is a tradition at PepsiCo, the top management showed their managers their trust and tried to challenge their thought process. This is the result of PepsiCo investment on them. Calloways rejoinder for outstanding performance was the three Ps people, people, people. Such decision makers should be experienced. real their two phase system was very successful because it let successful managers to promote another divisions, contest positions or different functional areas.Most of the top management which can be seen from organization chart (Exhibit 2) had participated at all levels of PepsiCo with different assignments, so they were generalists and great managers with different experiences. Their management approach can be describe as Calloway states We take eagles and teach them to fly in formation. Carts of Colorado and California Pizza Kitchen were two companies that PepsiCo. were concerned to acquire. The advantages and disadvantages of such acquisitions will be considered separately.But first of all, we have to consider what was the strategy of PepsiCo for the future and what PepsiCo has experienced. According to strategic planners of the company quick service restaurants would remain the largest segment over the following decade. Based on their analyses, quick service, casual dining and take out segments would be attractive. On the other hand, PepsiCo. invested to casual dining like Pizza Hut Cafe and experienced that their know-how for this segment is low. (Reinemund We needed people to come in and profane the mold of our thinking.We knew enough to know what we didnt) Additionally, Salsa Rio Grill which is also an investment for casual dining was a failure, but it has also mentioned it could be successful with a different setting. These are aspects that we have to think whether to acquire CPK. The case also mentions that PepsiCo. needed non-traditional program to increase points of distribution. That can be achieved with carts. The company also purchased carts from COC because they saw a potential future that the location of sales was really important. If COC is acquired, than PepsiCo ould acquire skills or technologies more quickly or at lower cost than they could be built in-house. This can be seen as a strength, besides COCs carts wouldnt cover the core competence of PepsiCO, therefore its acquisition could be not cost efficient. There is also an opportunity of first mover with the know-how of COC PepsiCo could achieve the most efficient mobile storesi, superpower be also apply some strategies for automats. The threat was tha t COC has a centralized organization, because of adaptation problems whole construe could be a failure. Acquisition of CPK has strengths according to its operating segment of casual dining.The weakness could be because of its cost comparing to its benefit. Strategic planners saw casual dining segment a growth market and with its know-how they would thunder their market. Its threat is centralized structure of CPK. They failed with Pizza Hut Cafe and Salsa Rio Grill and it could also happen with CPK if they apply their quick service strategies. According my point of view PepsiCo should not acquire CPK because PepsiCo. s tradition is very powerful and they want to adopt their strategies to CPK, but added value and core competence of this companies is its centralized structure.If they act so, they will fail, instead of acquiring synergy. Additionally, the economies of scale CPK is also small which would not add value to its soft drink segment, the acquirement of other restaurant chain s was also beneficial for brand awareness and reputation, this wouldnt happen for CPK. They would acquire it for know-how of this company, but the company is not public and centralized, everything will depend on cofounders of CPK, this a very big risk if we compare benefits and its cost.On the other hand, PepsiCo could acquire COC, but they could make a technology contract with such a company. In such a contract the threat is the benefit, the synergy with experience of PepsiCo and know-how of COC can be extraordinary. If COC shares the results to other competitors, that wouldnt be a one sided gain, so comparing with its cost, it would be such(prenominal) better to acquire it because built-in of such department would be also very costly. As a result, I want also add my comments about the success status of Pepsi in restaurant business. I believe, it is successful.Although its history is short comparing with soft drink segment, its revenue is greater than soft drink segment and this i s a success, PepsiCo differentiated its products, it made a great purchase system for cost effectiveness, but it had to increase its profitability according to 1991 data. Although it covered 36% of PepsiCo sales, but operating profit was 29% and as we knew from case, PepsiCo main strategy was investing to where it believed it could achieve the highest returns. (Exhibit 4) Reference http//www. mckinseyquarterly. com/The_five_types_of_successful_acquisitions_2635 PepsiCos Restaurants Harvard Business School Case
Friday, May 17, 2019
Looking around the get together States, it is not hard to involve the fix that Spanish-speaking nations, namely Mexico, have had on us. Every day we see signs in Spanish. We strike it as we walk through the streets of Madison and Milwaukee. We feel the push it has on us in our everyday school system. We also see the controversy it causes on the saucilys. What I result be attempting to explore in this paper is the origins of Mexican Americans and their continuing influence on the United States.I opine it is important to graduation exercise understand the history of the relationship between Americans and Mexicans to understand the prec at one timeived notions many Americans have towards Mexico. Although both nations atomic number 18 technically Americas, for the duration of the paper I will refer to the United States as America. After pleasant its in computeence from Spain, Mexico showtime had large-scale contact with Americans during the early 1800s when Americans were mi grating farther west to what is present day Texas.Mexico allowed these citizens to take a breather despite the tension and friction that was building between Whites, Indians and Mexicans in these territories. Texas citizens declargond themselves an independent nation, and due to the United States recognition of such, a war was prompted between the United States and Mexico. Mexico lost the war as healthful as its territories in North America. Mexican citizens who stayed behind in the lost territories became American citizens (Marger, 2012).One of the things that continuously muddled me about racism in the south, and states like Arizona, is the complete indifference or ignorance of this fact. I have always wondered how the White Supremacist mindset kneads when Mexican Americans have a natural ancestry in these states and were the first citizens of these states. How can we still see bumper stickers that say Learn English or Go Home, or Go back to your own country when the first c itizens of these states were Mexicans?I believe that a cause for this is the escape of emphasis of early Mexican American history taught in schools. I I believe that if this were emphasized, these precise ethnocentric arguments would be dispelled so unitaryr. Immigration of Mexicans and other Latinos to America is not going to stop, so to ignore their semipolitical influence would be foolish. Demographics argon showing that the Hispanic population is on the rise. There are an estimated 6. 6 million illegal immigrants from Mexico alone residing in the United States (Marger, 2012).The European American population, although still the largest in size, declining. (Marger, 2012). Since in that respect are an increasing amount of people in the United States who are a mixed race, such as myself who is part Mexican American, true numbers of those who identify as part Hispanic are not yet known. (Marger, 2012). I believe that due to this, it is more crucial than ever to understand what good-hearted of influence Mexican Americans will have on the socioeconomic and political structure of the future America.As much as certain groups of people would want to deny the influence of Mexican culture, as well as that of other Spanish-speaking heathenishities on the United States, the population statistics, (as well as the 2012 Election results, in my opinion) prove otherwise. Hispanics are the largest minority group (Naumann, Benet-Martinez, Espinoza 2013), and it is estimated that by 2050, 46% of the United States population will be Hispanic. (Marger, 2012). Insofar as political influence is concerned, 2008 held 19. 5 million registered Hispanic voters, and it is estimated that 23.7 million registered voters were Hispanic in the 2012 election. To more specifically cite the influence of Mexican Americans in todays take world, there are 33 million Mexican Americans in the United States and 73% of them were born in America (Naumann, et al 2013). Despite attempts of the Rep ublican Party to capture the vote of Hispanic Americans, 70% of them are still voting Democratic. (Naumann, et al 2013). Although Cubans tend to vote primarily more for Republicans, the larger population of Mexican Americans is still voting for Democrats.(Naumann, et al 2013). By analyzing these data, I can only conclude that the dire select for the Hispanic vote from the GOP is the sole purpose of the existence of Marco Rubio in modern politics. A question arises, as much as Mexican Americans influence us, how much do we influence them? The answer would have to depend on how in favor they are of assimilation. Studies have shown that most Mexican American youth would cull a biculturism form of acculturation, preferring to hold on to their ethnic customs but also to embrace new American ones (Naumann, et al 2013).It was also shown in these studies that the more deep-routed Mexican Americans tend to be in their ethnicity, that the likelier they are to vote liberally (Naumann, et al 2013). Understanding Mexican Americans role in the workplace currently will also help explain motivations as to how they vote and continue to influence the rest of America. A employment published in 2005 showed that Mexicans, slice living in Mexico, have fewer expectations for advancement in the workplace, including to upper-management positions. This leads them to believe there are less forms of discrimination based on age, sex and ethnicity (Bennington, Wagman, Stallone, 2005).Although these studies were done for Mexicans, not Mexican Americans, I believe that during the newest wave of immigration this attitude could carry over, which could explain at least one reason that despite the large population, there are not heaping amounts of Mexican Americans in upper-level positions. For work life itself, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Mexican Americans have at large suffered the same impact of the recession other ethnicities have suffered, having Unemployment peaking st rongly in the 2009-2011 years and just now in 2013 jump to make a recovery (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013).I believe this relates to the influence Mexican Americans have on us because since newer immigrants do not seek power as quickly as other ethnic groups, it can lead to certain prejudices of them being unmotivated, which in turn would influence behavior of White Americans to turn to them as subordinates. In summation, I believe that educating the true history of Mexican Americans (such as their origin as joining the US as citizens after the Mexican War), can help stop certain forms of prejudice, as well as helping Americans to realize that they are an ever-increasing demographic that is not going away anytime soon.Their influence is growing in US Politics, and this will have to be recognized if certain political groups adjure to survive in the new century. I believe that if there is more respect given to them while they are a minority group, the more respect they will give to White America once Whites lose their status as the dominant ethnic group.
Thursday, May 16, 2019
Introduction The obstruct riots of 1969 happened consecutively for 3 days, it all started on June 27th in Greenwich Village, New York at the hinder Inn. During the 1960s it was common for the law to raid fairylike bars, and when this would happen the merrys and homosexuals would try to sneak out the back door. The police would arrest the patrons and drag them mop up to jail, their names were written down and published in the newspaper by the next day and as a result they would be fired from their jobs. The 1960s was a term of revolution.The Civil Rights Movement was in full swing and people took to the streets to protest the war in Vietnam. It was notwithstanding a matter of time before jollys and lesbians stood up for their rights as well. (A history of Gay and Lesbian Pride) June is this instant the month know as Gay Pride month, a time when all gays and lesbians prance and parade to celebrate. Setting/Background Living in the 1960s as a gay and or lesbian was very diff icult in fact the only way to be safe was to be in the closet, not openly gay to the public.Police took it up as their duty to arrest gay patrons who were seen snuggling each other, dancing with one another, or even holding hands with one another. Generally reasonable being present was enough in their minds to warrant an arrest. Of course when this appeared in the newspaper they were tabbed as having pull a Crime against nature. (The history and impact of the Stonewall Riots) Issues Involved/Causes During the 1950s 1990s gay couples were not allowed to touch or dance with one another it was also illegal for women to dress up in mens clothing and men to dress in womens clothing.If three known homosexuals were seance at a table together then it would be illegal to serve an alcoholic drunkenness to them. If the gays didnt comply with the laws then they were faced with a fine, a night in jail, and the next morning they would have their names printed the daily newspapers and have a record under guilty activity. (The history and impact of the Stonewall Riots) Event On June 27th police raided a gay bar in Greenwich, New York at the Stonewall Inn.Police demanded identification papers from costumers, they escorted them outside on to the sidewalks were they were pushed off and others were put into a paddy-wagon. Thats when some of the lesbians and gays started to fight back. They Chanted Gay Power all plot of land throwing bottles and rocks at the police. Riot veteran and gay rights activist Craig Rodwell says A number of incidents were happening simultaneously. There was no one thing that happened or one person, there was just a flash of group, of mass anger. (The embarrass riots-1969) Crowds soon began to grow outside the Stonewall Inn. Every time the police would have the crowd spilt up it would just start again right behind them and again they would start to chant. Thirteen arrest had been do on the first night of the riot many of the protesters were single d out and beaten and then later were arrested. With about two thousand protesters and only about four hundred police officers, the tactical patrol suck was called in to disperse the riots that with a failed attempt the riot continued on.Outcome/ effects/Aftermath Effects of the Stonewall Riots were that the gay community in new York united in the fight against discrimination and June became known as a gay month to celebrate their pride in homosexuality. The gay liberation bird-scarer was organized. Gay people learned to take a stand for themselves and to fight back. Reflection Though gay issues are still a problem today in America, the Stonewall Riots was the first step toward conglutination the gay community to start taking a stand for what they believe is right.I believe that if it wasnt for the Stonewall Riots then life for gays and lesbians would still be the same as it was then. It was the Stonewall Riot that led to gay liberations and for the gay community to start workin g together to make life easier for them. I dont believe that the police should have gone as far as they did with raiding gay bars, but it was there ridings that led up to the Stonewall Riot so actually Im fortunate that they did that otherwise the gay liberation front may have never been formed.
Wednesday, May 15, 2019
Discuss the two objections to the use of carnival value measurement referred to above, and critically examine how far they ar valid - Essay ExampleThe first objection says that the method is, thus, non good for financial reporting while the second says that the method will be against the stakeholders and investors interest. This study seeks to consider pleasure ground value measurement method in accounting in light of the aforementioned objections. in advance embarking on the studys purpose, it is of essence, though, to define fair value as presumptuousness by IASB. correspond to IFRS 13, Fair value is that price that one would receive if he/she disposed an asset or paid to ensure an obligations transfer in an orderly kind of transaction between players in a mart at the date of measurement. IFRS 13 is there to increase comparability and consistency in measurements that use fair value method and the disclosures that go in tandem through what is referred to as fair value hiera rchy. This hierarchy categorizes the inputs that are usually utilized in the techniques of valuation into three primary(prenominal) levels. This hierarchy prioritizes at the top, the unadjusted/quoted prices for identical liabilities or assets and in active marts. The lowest priority is given to unobservable type of inputs. The levels of inputs are explained as under. Level 1 inputs refer to the quoted prices in the active markets for liabilities or assets that are identical that the entity can get at the date of measurement. ... Those scholars who are against this method argue that fair value method presents information that is unreliable since it is not usually based upon transactions at work ups length. Thus, it should not be used when it comes to investors making financial decisions. Under its reliability, cynics say that it is not a reliable measurement method. Some of the scholars against this method like Cunningham Colleen, the president of FEI- Financial Executives Interna tional, said that the information that is generated by this method cannot be of any relevant use to an investor. According to Cunningham, it is in fact useless to an investor. Income statements are subject to manipulation if this method is applied in measurements. (Shortridge et al, 2006) Fair values are not applicable in cases of quicks arbitraging of market prices. It is not an appropriate method especially when a firm adds value for stockholders by way of purchasing at input prices of the market and disposing at output prices of the market. In this case, the argument is that the raw materials applied in the process of manufacturing do not gain their value from a variance in their exit prices in the market, but as inputs into processes which add values to the existing market prices by making a product as well as selling the same to consumers. This is because a variance in the value for stockholders is not really connected to a variance in the prices of the market. Thus, as a form of stewardship stockholders should be rewarded by the management through other basis, but not victimization market values. Also efficient prices are reliant on historical costs and, thus, fair market value measurements cannot serve as substitutes under this kind of scenario. The
Tuesday, May 14, 2019
Basic precedential Year Financial Questions - Assignment ExampleNet present value recognizes time value of notes and such appreciates that a shilling now is more valuable than a shilling tomorrow and the both can only be compared if they are at their present value.This is another modern method of discounting immediate payment flow because the technique uses the principle of NPV. It is defined as the rate which the present value of cash outflows of an investing equates the initial capital invested.IRR will accept a conjecture if its IRR is higher than or equal to the borderline required rate of return which is usually the cost of finance also known as the neck off rate or hurdle rate, and in this case IRR will be the highest rate of pastime a firm would be ready to pay to finance a project using borrowed pecuniary resource and without being financially worse off by paying back the loan (the principal and accumulated interest) out of the cash flows generated by that project. Thus, IRR is the break-even rate of borrowing from commercial banks.This method gauges the viability of a venture by taking the inflows and outflows over time to ascertain how soon a venture can payback and for this causal agency PBP (or payout period or payoff) is that period of time or duration it will take an investment venture to generate sufficient cash inflows to payback the cost of such investment. This is a popular approach among the traditional financial managers because it helps them ascertain the time it will take to recoup in form of cash from trading operations the original cost of the venture. This method is usually an important preliminary screening stage of the viability of the venture and it may yield clues to profitability although in principle it will measure how fast a venture may payback rather than how much a venture will generate in profits and provided the main objectives of an investment is not to recoup the original cost but also to earn a profit for the owners or
Monday, May 13, 2019
Pick and art work that is influenced by astronomy - Essay ExampleHe was a Post-Impressionist artist, and like the Impressionists he could make use of the newly available ready prepared paints in tubes which made it much easier to paint outdoors, maybe painting in the g corpulents of the asylum, but in this case he is looking east through an open window. In April 1888 avant-garde Gogh wrote -Although the image of the sky is exaggerated and unrealistic, yet it remains one e reallybody can consociate to, as we have all been outdoors at night at some point in our lives, and gazed up a the wonders of the heavens, swirls of clouds, paladins pricking the darkness, and the beautiful moon in all its stages. We were not however experiencing Van Goghs particular state of mental illness, in which realities were so exaggerated that it caused him to paint the stars so large and producing what Naifah and Smith ( varlet 762) refer to as -This was painted of course long before quadrangle explor ation or modern telescopes. Van Gogh did not know that the moon is just a lump of dusty rock. He may not have known that the light we see from the stars is historical, in that it has taken considerable time to reach Earth because of the immense distances involved. In this case each star is surrounded by a lesser light, a halo. This may perhaps indicate a very cold night, or it could have some significance to Van Gogh.The many swirls and curves are part of the tie of this work. They carry the viewers eyes around the painting from one point to the next and round again. It is a painting of the imagination. Even the village of St Remy doesnt look exactly as it really was, perhaps because it is not visible from the asylum windows, but some things are factual, in this case the very pearlescent star depicted immediately right of the cypresses is actually the planet Venus, the rising morning star ( Whitney, page 356, 1966). Soth ( page 305,1996) states that Van Gogh wrote to