Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Making Case Teaching Essay Audrey EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay Ã¢â¬Å"Making the Case for Teaching our Boys toÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËBring Me Home a Black GirlÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ explains the ideas and reasons behind the need to impress upon black men the importance of marrying within the race. It presents a strongly ethnocentric view of the marital situation, citing this as an important step in the preservation of the black race and culture. The essay considers the influence of the media over the minds of black people, identifying the dominance of its white images. It identifies areas in which this influence has led to the erosion of the black family and community through interracial marriages that dilute the black-content of the unionsÃ¢â¬â¢ offspring. The essay also cites examples of successful and educated members of the African American community that adhere to the idea of marrying within the race as a method of fortifying it financially and ensuring its continued prosperity. In making these points, Edwards uses a number of discursive techniques to strengthen her argument and make her case more understandable and cogent to her audience. The subject of the essay is the marital choices of black men of this era. The author seeks to make a point that black men should choose marital partners from within the black race. Audrey Edwards begins by demonstrating with clarity how she has impressed it upon her step-son that marrying a black woman is the way to please her. She expresses the opinion that the training up of the black man should include lessons on how to marry just as much as it includes lessons on attitude. She writes that it is a Ã¢â¬Å"mothers role in imparting to male children whats expected when it comes to marriageÃ¢â¬ (Edwards, par. 3). Her idea is that active parenting should be able to combat the problem currently being faced of black men marrying outside of the race. With constant authoritative reminders of what is expected of them regarding marriage, it is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion that parents can inculcate in black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds how unthinkable it should be to engage in inter-racial marriage. The audience to which this essay is directed is a predominantly black one. It directly comprises black fathers and mothers as well as black sons, as Edwards considers that Ã¢â¬Å"the issue might be addressed by something as simple and basic as child rearingÃ¢â¬ (par. 4). The essay, therefore, speaks to these parents on how to go about letting their sons know precisely where to go to choose a mate. It also seeks to convince those black parents who need convincing that they should take a stand in promoting black marriage within their households and communities. Yet the essayÃ¢â¬â¢s audience is also indirectly made up of yet-to-be married black men and women who have the potential to be produce and rear the next generation of black children. These potential parents have the opportunity to make right and wrong choices concerning their mates. The author desires to focus their attention on black members of the opposite sex and to deter them from choosing outside their race. Finally, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s message is intended to be filtered down even to small children, as she seeks to promote the bombardment of these children with positive images of black persons within homes and other places where they spend their time. The persona of the essay is its author who, as a black woman, has witnessed the migration of black men from the black race and their gravitation toward white women as life partners. This she has considered to be an affront to black women in general and specifically to herself, who has no ammunition against an Anglo-centric media that promotes white women as beautiful and black women as the opposite. This persona takes the point of view also of a mother, who considers it her responsibility to contribute to the reversal of this problem by teaching her son values that would deter him from acting in the same way toward black women. The purpose of the essay is to provide cogent arguments to persons of authority that would induce them to promote the purity of the black race and dissuade black men from marrying outside of the race. EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ describes the essay as one that seeks to promote the adage, Ã¢â¬Å"Bring me home a black girl,Ã¢â¬ as one that has become somewhat of a commandment in the black community. She writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Its one of those commandments Ugo has heard from me most of his life, right up there with Ã¢â¬ËDont do drugs,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËFinish schoolÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËUse a condomÃ¢â¬â¢ (Edwards, par. 2). The article is meant to convince parents and authority figures that they have to be clear to young black men regarding what is required of them. Edwards continues, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, we may ask vague, cursory questions about the women they bring home: Can she cook? What work does she do? Who are her people? But rarely do we come right out and make the case for marrying BlackÃ¢â¬ (par. 4). The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to change this by becoming open and vocal about the necessity to maintain the sanctity of the ethnocentric union. The ethos of this particular piece derives from the persona of the author as a mother and professional. However, the author also draws upon the testimonials of several other successful, educated, and well-respected persons within the Black community who share her views. She gains testimonies from such persons as professors, successful Black business owners, and media personnel. One such testimonial that increases the ethical appeal of the argument comes from a professor at Howard University (Maxwell Manning), who strengthens the ethos of EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ case by citing academic and anthropological ideas that favor her case. The logos or logical appeal of the essay can be found in EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of examples and credible statistics collected by the U. S. Census Bureau to demonstrate precisely how the marriage of black men to white women has been eroding the Black community. She records that Ã¢â¬Å"the number of Black men marrying White women has increased tenfold in the last 40 years, up from 25,000 in 1960 to 268,000 today. Thats more than double the number of Black women who marry White menÃ¢â¬ (Edwards, par. 5). The logos of this is to be found in the fact that any thinking person that reads this would be able to understand the precise implications of this phenomenon. More black women are left with no one to marry when higher levels of black men than women seek partners outside the race. Edwards also uses such data to indicate the early age at which black children start becoming affected by the media in such a way that is detrimental to their self image. She writes, Ã¢â¬Å"But according to experts, by age 7, Black children have already been bombarded by media images that can negatively shape how they view themselves and the partners youd think they would naturally be drawn toÃ¢â¬ (par. 12). Her reference to the testimony of experts lends logical credibility to her ideas and makes them more convincing. One authoritative testimony comes from the professor Maxwell Manning from Howard University. Edwards quotes him as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"If you look at strong cultures, like the Jews, youll find they have a high rate of marrying within their group. Thats how they remain strongÃ¢â¬ (Edwards, par. 9). This idea strengthens the ethos of the case for marrying within the Black community as a method of preserving its strength. Edwards also cites the magazine publisher and his wife who Ã¢â¬Å"made it clear to [their] boys that they were not to bring home any White girlsÃ¢â¬ (par. 3). Another authoritative testimony comes from Valerie Williams, a marketing executive who thinks it undesirable for her son to marry someone who considers him inferior (par 16). The testimony above by Maxwell Manning also takes the form of an analogy. Here, a comparison is drawn between the effort to reduce intermarriage in the Black community and the efforts at keeping the Jewish community untainted and strong. This comparison is made for the sake of presenting the case for black ethnocentrism as having as much credibility as that which is enjoyed by the Jewish community. It also helps in pointing out the legitimacy, importance and non-racist aspect of lobbying for the preservation of the Black race. The essay by Audrey Edwards exists for the purpose of defending the promotion of black men marrying black women. The author identifies the problem that exists in which black women are denied marriage partners because black men frequently turn to white women. The impact of this, which the author presents, weighs heavily on the future of the black race. With racial intermarriage comes mixed-race children; and the more of these that take place, the fewer black children will be present to perpetuate the black race. The author uses several devices to make her point. She utilizes ethical components and logical arguments, as well as analogies and authoritative testimonials in order to make her case a cogent one. Work Cited Edwards, Audrey. Ã¢â¬Å"Making the Case for Teaching our Boys toÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËBring Me Home a Black Girl. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Essence. November, 2002. Available: http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m1264/is_7_33/ai_94384284/pg_1
Monday, January 20, 2020
Personal Narrative- Growing Closer to God My head spins as I fly down Capital Circle on my way back home from church. Church has always been the highlight of my week, but something was missing tonight. I just couldn't seem to focus on worshiping God. My usual words of praise were empty. My hectic life had become a distraction and kept me from focusing on God, who should be my main priority. The butterflies in my stomach feel more like a herd of elephants tearing through my body. I cry out, "Why God? Why am I so busy? Why can't things just slow down for a single night?" As I pull into my driveway the "elephants" continue and my stress level only escalates. An incredible urge to disappear overwhelms me. As I slump over my textbook and try to focus on studying, my gaze keeps shifting to my Bible. "Are you trying to tell me something God? Because I don't think you understand how much I have left to do tonight. My grade depends on studying for this test and I'm not ready for it at all." My arm creeps toward the Bible and snatches it up. It's as if the arm isn't my own; I can'...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
1. What kind of strike does the law not allow to form the basis of self-defense claims? d. Preemptive Correct Question 2 The castle exception is an exception to what doctrine? a. the retreat doctrine Question 3 Which of the following cases involves the Ã¢â¬Å"New York Subway Vigilante?Ã¢â¬ c. People v. Goetz (1986) Correct Question 4 Most defenses are perfect defenses; if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re successful, defendants are c. acquitted. Question 5 The retreat requirement is weakest or nonexistent when persons are attacked b. in their own homes. Correct Question 6 The defense of consent recognizes the societal value of a. individual autonomy. Correct Question 7 A defense in which the defendant admits the act but claims that, under the circumstances, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t legally responsible is called b. excuse. Correct Question 8 A defense in which the defendant accepts responsibility for the act but claims what they did was right is called a. justification. Correct Question 9 Circumstances that convince fact finders that defendants donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve the maximum penalty for the crime theyÃ¢â¬â¢re convicted of are called c. mitigating circumstances. Correct Question 10 Which of the following never justifies the use of force against another person? a. retaliation Question 11 At the heart of the choice-of-evils defense is the necessity to prevent a. imminent danger. Correct Question 12 A person who was the initial aggressor can gain a lawful right to self-defense if they do which of the following from the incident they started? b. completely withdraw Correct Question 13 A person can use deadly force against an attacker whom the victim reasonably believes is going to cause them an injury less than death. The attacker is said to be threatening b. serious bodily injury. Correct Question 14 What is the heart of self-defense? a. necessity Correct Question 15 The general rule is that self-defense is available only against what type of attacks? b. Legal Question 16 Which of the following is a key requirement of the necessity defense? a. that no reasonable legal option exists for averting the harm Correct Question 17 The law of self-defense is undergoing b. major transformation. Correct Question 18 In some jurisdictions, a person must retreat before using defensive deadly force if a. he can with complete safety to himself and others. Correct Question 19 Defensive force may be used only if the threat or danger isÃ d. imminent. Correct Question 20 Evidence that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t amount to a perfect defense might amount to an imperfect defense; that is, defendants are d. guilty of lesser offenses.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Empress Elisabeth (born Elisabeth of Bavaria; December 24, 1837 Ã¢â¬â September 10, 1898) was one of the most famous royal women in European history. Famed for her great beauty, she was also a diplomat who oversaw the unification of Austria and Hungary. She holds the title of the longest-serving Empress of Austria in history. Fast Facts: Empress Elisabeth of Austria Full Name:Ã Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie, Duchess in Bavaria, later Empress of Austria and Queen of HungaryOccupation: Empress of Austria and Queen of HungaryBorn: December 24, 1837 in Munich, BavariaDied: September 10, 1898 in Geneva, SwitzerlandKey Accomplishments: Elisabeth was AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s longest-serving empress. Although she was often at odds with her own court, she had a special relationship with the Hungarian people and was instrumental in bringing about the uniting of Austria and Hungary in an equal, dual monarchy.Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"Oer thee, like thine own sea birdsÃ / Ill circle without rest / For me earth holds no cornerÃ /Ã To build a lasting nest.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â from a poem written by Elisabeth Early Life: The Young Duchess Elisabeth was the fourth child of Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and Princess Ludovika of Bavaria. Duke Maximilian was a bit eccentric and decidedly more progressive in his ideals than his fellow European aristocrats, which heavily influenced Elisabeths beliefs and upbringing. ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood was much less structured than many of her royal and aristocratic counterparts. She and her siblings spent much of their time riding in the Bavarian countryside, rather than in formal lessons. As a result, Elisabeth (fondly known as Ã¢â¬Å"SisiÃ¢â¬ to her family and closest confidantes) grew to prefer a more private, less structured lifestyle. Throughout her childhood, Elisabeth was particularly close to her older sister Helene. In 1853, the sisters traveled with their mother to Austria in hopes of an extraordinary match for Helene. Ludovikas sister Sophie, mother of Emperor Franz Joseph, had tried and failed to secure a match for her son among major European royalty and instead turned to her own family. Privately, Ludovika also hoped the trip might secure a second marriage in the family: between Franz JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother, Karl Ludwig, and Elisabeth. A Whirlwind Romance and the Aftermath Serious and pious, Helene did not appeal to the 23-year-old emperor, although his mother expected he would obey her wishes and propose to his cousin. Instead, Franz Joseph fell madly in love with Elisabeth. He insisted to his mother that he would not propose to Helene, only to Elisabeth; if he could not marry her, he swore he would never marry. Sophie was deeply displeased, but she eventually acquiesced. Franz Joseph and Elisabeth married on April 24, 1854. The period of their engagement had been a strange one: Franz Joseph was reported by all to be full of joy, but Elisabeth was quiet, nervous, and often found crying. Some of this could certainly be attributed to the overwhelming nature of the Austrian court, as well as the reportedly overbearing attitude of her aunt-turned-mother-in-law. The Austrian court was intensely strict, with rules and etiquette that frustrated the progressive-minded Sisi. Even worse was her relationship with her mother-in-law, who refused to cede power to Elisabeth, who she viewed as a silly girl incapable of being an empress or mother. When Elisabeth and Franz Joseph had their first child in 1855, the Archduchess Sophie, Sophie refused to allow Elisabeth to care for her own child or even name her. She did the same to the next daughter, Archduchess Gisela, born in 1856. Following GiselaÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, the pressure increased even further on Elisabeth to produce a male heir. A cruel pamphlet was anonymously left in her private chambers that suggested the role of a queen or empress was only to bear sons, not to have political opinions, and that a consort who did not bear a male heir would be a scheming danger to the country. It is widely believed that Sophie was the source. Elisabeth suffered another blow in 1857, when she and the archduchesses accompanied the emperor to Hungary for the first time. Although Elisabeth discovered a deep kinship with the more informal and straightforward Hungarian people, it was also the site of great tragedy. Both her daughters fell ill, and the Archduchess Sophie died, only two years old. An Active Empress Following SophieÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Elisabeth retreated from Gisela as well. She began the obsessive beauty and physical regimens that would grow into the stuff of legend: fasting, rigorous exercise, an elaborate routine for her ankle-length hair, and stiff, tightly-laced corsets. During the long hours required to maintain all of this, Elisabeth was not inactive: she used this time to learn several languages, study literature and poetry, and more. In 1858, Elisabeth finally fulfilled her expected role by becoming the mother of an heir: the Crown Prince Rudolf. His birth helped her gain a larger foothold of power at court, which she used to speak on behalf of her beloved Hungarians. In particular, Elisabeth grew close to Hungarian diplomat Count Gyula Andrassy. Their relationship was a close alliance and friendship and was also rumored to be a love affair Ã¢â¬â so much so that, when Elisabeth had a fourth child in 1868, rumors swirled that Andrassy was the father. Elisabeth was forced away from politics around 1860, when several bouts of ill health caught up with her, along with stress brought on by the rumors of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s affair with an actress. She used this as an excuse to withdraw from court life for some time; her symptoms often returned when she returned to the Viennese court. It was around this time that she began standing her ground with her husband and mother-in-law, especially when they wanted another pregnancy Ã¢â¬â which Elisabeth did not want. Her marriage with Franz Joseph, already distant, became even more so. She relented, however, in 1867, as a strategic move: by returning to her marriage, she increased her influence in time to push for the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which created a dual monarchy in which Hungary and Austria would be equal partners. Elisabeth and Franz Joseph became King and Queen of Hungary, and ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Andrassy became the prime minister. Her daughter, Valerie, was born in 1868, and became the object of all her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s pent-up maternal affection, sometimes to an extreme extent. The Hungarian Queen With her new official role as queen, Elisabeth had more excuse than ever to spend time in Hungary, which she gladly took. Even though her mother-in-law and rival Sophie died in 1872, Elisabeth often remained away from court, choosing instead to travel and to raise Valerie in Hungary. She dearly loved the Magyar people, as they loved her, and gained a reputation for her preference for Ã¢â¬Å"commonÃ¢â¬ people over mannered aristocrats and courtiers. Elisabeth was shattered with yet another tragedy in 1889 when her son Rudolf died in a suicide pact with his mistress Mary Vetsera. This left Franz Josephs brother Karl Ludwig (and, upon Karl Ludwigs death, his son Archduke Franz Ferdinand) as the heir. Rudolf had been an emotional boy, like his mother, who was forced into a military upbringing that did not suit him at all. Death seemed everywhere for Elisabeth: her father had died in 1888, her sister Helene died in 1890, and her mother in 1892. Even her steadfast friend Andrassy passed in 1890. Her fame continued to increase, as did her desire for privacy. Over time, she repaired her relationship with Franz Joseph, and the two became good friends. Distance seemed to help the relationship: Elisabeth was traveling extensively, but she and her husband corresponded often. Assassination and Legacy Elisabeth was traveling incognito in Geneva, Switzerland in 1898 when news of her presence leaked. On September 10, she and a lady-in-waiting were walking to board a steamer when she was attacked by Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni, who wanted to kill a monarch, any monarch. The wound was not evident at first, but Elisabeth collapsed soon after boarding, and it was discovered that Lucheni had stabbed her in the chest with a thin blade. She died almost immediately. Her body was returned to Vienna for a state funeral, and she was buried in the Capuchin Church. Her killer was apprehended, tried, and convicted, then committed suicide in 1910 while in prison. ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy Ã¢â¬â or legend, depending on who you ask Ã¢â¬â carried on in several ways. Her widower founded the Order of Elizabeth in her honor, and many monuments and buildings in Austria and Hungary bear her name. In earlier stories, Elisabeth was portrayed as a fairy-tale princess, likely because of her whirlwind courtship and because of the most famous portrait of her: a painting by Franz Xaver Winterhalter that depicted her with diamond stars in her floor-length hair. Later biographies attempted to uncover the depth of ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s life and inner conflict. Her story has captivated writers, musicians, filmmakers, and more, with dozens of works based on her life finding success. Instead of an untouchable, ethereal princess, she was often depicted as a complex, often unhappy woman Ã¢â¬â much closer to reality. Sources Hamann, Brigitte. The Reluctant Empress: A Biography of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Knopf, 1986.Haslip, Joan, The Lonely Empress: Elisabeth of Austria. Phoenix Press, 2000.Meares, Hadley. The Tragic Austrian Empress Who Was Murdered By Anarchists. History.